The society logo over a background of trackwork. For 4mm finescale railway modelling at its very best

The Protofour Manual
Introduction to Layout Building

The design and construction of a scale model railway owes its interest to the many facets of the operation, for it is at one and the same time a science, an art, a craft, a mental exercise, a therapy, a pastime and a form of collecting. For this reason it is not possible to discuss the subject in a few sentences, nor is it possible to offer the newcomer to the subject specific advice, as in no two individuals will the goals and the approach be quite the same.

Yet the disturbing feature of a hobby which offers such potential for enjoyment is that very many model railways have been abandoned at various stages in their construction because of the unforeseen difficulties which were encountered. The major problems confronting the modeller can be summarised as follows:
i) unsatisfactory standards, resulting in unreliable and non-prototypical running of rolling stock,
ii) difficulties in initial planning, especially in respect of trackwork,
iii) lack of components to scale dimensions,
iv) non-compatability of components,
v) time wasting work required in the modification of many components,
vi) difficulties of obtaining data on modelling techniques.

Many of the above problems beset the beginner and experienced modeller alike with the result that both time and money are wasted. The Protofour concept embraces standards, a related set of components, construction techniques and planning aids, and has been designed to eliminate the obstacles which were previously such a frustration to the modeller. The Protofour components and techniques are described in detail in the Instruction Leaflets, which form Section 4 of the Protofour Manual, and the following notes are intended as a general guide to the factors which must be considered in the planning and construction of a scale model railway, and its associated equipment. The purpose of these notes is to assist the modeller to avoid the waste of time and money which results from the use of faulty planning techniques.

The planning of a model railway can be considered under the following headings:

1. Choice of scale and standards,
2. Choice of prototype and period,
3. Nature of rolling stock,
4. Nature of layout - permanent or portable,
5. Design of baseboards and trackwork,
6. Design of control system and electrics,
7. Design of scenic and architectural features,
8. Choice of construction techniques.

1. Choice of Scale and Standards. The choice of scale is usually a compromise between the space which is available, or which is likely to be available, and the amount of detail that is to be represented on the layout. Scale is normally indicated by a convenient reference (e.g. millimetres to the foot), or by a code (e.g. Gauge '0'), although in the latter case the standards used in conjunction with the nominal scale may vary widely. However, in these notes only those standards applicable to correct scale modelling are considered, since these are the only ones with which faithful reproduction of the prototype and smooth running of rolling stock, can be simultaneously achieved. The 'Proto-Standards' listed in Section 2.0 of the Protofour Manual have been chosen as the correct scale equivalents to the nominal commercial scales. They are listed as ratios, which apply to all situations, and they represent the ultimate in scale appearance and operational reliability.

The general characteristics of the Proto-Standards are as follows, and as a guide to space requirements it is worth noting that, starting at Proto-160, each of the subsequent scales requires approximately twice the area of the preceding one for a given layout design, with the exception of Protofour (1:76.2).

Proto-160 (Proto-equivalent to 'N' Gauge). The smallest Preferred Proto-Standard and the scale suitable for modellers whose layout space is severely restricted. The amount of detail which can be incorporated in this scale is limited, and it is normally chosen to provide maximum train lengths in minimum space. 'N' Gauge models are generally produced to a ratio of 1:160, but PECO 1:148 complicates the situation for modellers of British prototypes. U.S. and Continental prototypes are well covered in 1:160 scale, and in Great Britain a 2mm Scale Association is active. The use of Proto-160 standards calls for extremely fine tolerances. At present it is probably not economically feasible for commercial products to be produced.

Proto-120 (Proto-equivalent to 'TT' Gauge). Proto-120 covers a scale region for which few suitable commercial parts are available, irrespective of country. In Great Britain the 3mm Scale Association caters for modellers in this scale. Proto-87 (Proto-equivalent to 'H0' Gauge). Commercial models in the U.S. and Europe are generally built to 1:87 ratio and a wide selection of good models is available. Certain parts for Proto87 have been designed by the MRSG and others may be adapted for use from the range produced for Protofour 1:76.2 operations.

PROTOFOUR (1:76.2). Equivalent to the British 4mm scale (4mm/1ft), and for which a large selection of British prototype equipment is available, including a full range of Protofour equipment.

Proto-64 (Proto-equivalent to 'S' Gauge). Although a very satisfying scale, with a combination of '0' Gauge bulk and 4mm space economy, there is very little equipment available and modellers must perforce make nearly all parts themselves. 'S' Gauge is the only scale/ratio common to Great Britain, the U.S. and Europe. In Great Britain the S Gauge Society promotes the scale.

Proto-45 (Proto-equivalent to '0' Gauge). Commercial standards for '0' Gauge vary between The U.S., Britain and Europe. An excellent scale for detailed modelling, but requiring considerable space for the best results. Often used for outdoor layouts. A reasonable range of commercial products is available and Proto-45 components are in the design stage. In Great Britain the Gauge '0' Guild is active.

Proto-32 (Proto-equivalent to '1' Gauge). Outdoor operation and steam driven locomotives fired by spirit or coal are features of this scale. Few commercial components are available and the emphasis tends to be on vehicles rather than on the railway as a whole. There is renewed commercial interest in this scale in Europe, and the Gauge '1' Society supports the scale in Great Britain.

2. Choice of Prototype and Period. This is clearly a matter for individual taste to decide, although certain factors tend to influence the final choice.

Many modellers commence with freelance railway building but find that contact with prototype data and experience in modelling tends to channel their interest in the direction of a particular railway company. In the ultimate case, they may select a particular railway location and model the trackwork, buildings, scenery and stock as accurately as possible. Unfortunately, prototype railways are rather extravagant in their use of space, and for many modellers the building of a correctly scaled model of a particular location is out of the question. They therefore base their layouts on the general practice of a railway company and the scenery is produced as typical of that through which the railway ran. Buildings from diverse locations are modelled and assembled on the layout to give the essential character of the original. Indeed, freelance railways are rather difficult to design for a convincing effect, as they have to follow practical railway rules. As a wide range of commercial products is available which enables the reproduction of typical prototypes in an authentic manner, entirely freelance models are rare.

The choice of company and period is affected by the availability of reliable information and the supply of suitable components. Where it was once possible to visit the site of the prototype and to take measurements of the remaining buildings and equipment and photographs of trackwork, nowadays the site is all too often found with tracks removed and buildings demolished. The success in reproducing the particular scene in its railway prime is then dependent upon the assistance of others with records or sources of information. British Bail public relations officers are unfailingly helpful to the modeller as are such groups as the L.M.S. Society.

The Protofour Society exists to provide modellers with information concerning possible sources of data, and its membership offers possibilities of contact with other modellers.

3. Nature of the Rolling Stock. It often happens that the rolling stock is constructed before the layout itself. The type of stock can influence the layout design to a considerable extent, especially where long or rigid-wheelbase vehicles are envisaged. The minimum radius of curves, and the capacity of bays, headshunts and station platforms is determined largely by the type of stock. Alternatively, where space is restricted, the length of stock may have to be restricted also. Conversely, if a specific layout design is envisaged then rolling stock construction must take any restrictions of the layout into account.

4. Nature of the Layout. There are basically three types of layout: a) The Permanent Layout. In this form,the baseboards are tailored to fit the site and are frequently large in order to keep baseboard joints to a minimum. Moving such a layout is a major operation which may well result in the destruction of much of the track and associated equipment.
b) The Semi-permanent Layout. In this type of layout the baseboards may still be matched to the site, but are of such a size that they may be easily removed when necessary.
c) The Portable Layout. This type of layout is designed to be easily and quickly dismantled and moved. Exhibition layouts usually fall into this category.

The Permanent Layout is often considered to be the best. It has the advantage of being always ready for operation and display, and lighting and scenery canbe installed without difficulty. Wiring can be carried across baseboards and joints in unbroken lengths, and the controls can be permanently built into the layout. A disadvantage is that the layout cannot be exhibited or operated in conjunction with other layouts. Further disadvantages are that work under the fixed baseboards is difficult and uncomfortable and, as previously mentioned, moving the layout is a major operation fraught with the risk of damage. For most modellers the Semi-permanent layout is the ideal one. The use of Protofour baseboard joiners removes the problems usually associated with the dismantling and reassembly of bases, and the latter can therefore be worked upon in conditions of comfort and in good lighting wherever it is most convenient for the operations. With proper design, the layout can be adapted for exhibition use and may be linked to other systems.

Portable layouts offer scope for much ingenuity of design. When their days of intensive travelling are over, they may always form part of a semi-permanent layout. As space is usually a decisive factor in the choice of portability, correct design will enable one baseboard to be worked on and completed at a time; portable layouts can also be built on the 'extensible' principle, in which a basic minimum-space track plan enables running in restricted space, while the insertion of matched extension bases expands the system into a larger layout with the same effective track plan. The Protofour track and wiring planning templates are of great assistance in formulating such a scheme, as well as for planning operations generally. With the availablity of such planning aids the idea that a layout cannot be started because 'no space is available' is defeatist. Trackwork and rolling stock may be built in the knowledge that they can be used as planned when space is obtained. If storage space is available for only a single baseboard section, this section can be built so that it takes its place in the eventual layout.

A very convenient solution, where only one or two bases can be stored, is to model a baseboard section, or sections, comprising the locomotive depot. Work on the locomotive stock can then proceed in preparation for the time when additional bases can be incorporated.

5. Design of Baseboards and Trackwork. Ideally the baseboards should be designed to suit the track plan, in order to avoid the inconvenient siting of joins and battens. Wiring and switch controls are normally sited below the baseboard, so battens must also be placed where they will not interfere with these fittings.

The track plan should be carefully evaluated before it is accepted as abasis for construction, as potential difficulties are easily removed in the planning stage, but are quite another matter when track is firmly in position. Baseboard joins should neverbe situated where they will cut across complex track formations.

6. Design of the Control System and Associated Electrics. The object in wiringa layout is to ensure reliable operation with whatever type of control system is chosen. If the Protofour Unit Wiring System is adopted, the simplest of controls may be used initially, while the later addition of more complex controls will involve few wiring changes. In conjunction with the Unit Wiring System, Protofour Wiring Templates enable the build-up of a wiring diagram which complements the track plan obtained by means of the Track Planning Templates. The wiring diagram serves not only as a simple aid to wiring but also as a permanent reference for fault finding.

7. Design of Scenic and Architectural Features. The general planning of the architectural and scenic features can be made in conjunction with the lmm/ift planning templates, using the appropriate overlays (see Section 4.1.2). They canbe modified as building proceeds, but the more care used in the initial planning stages the fewer the modifications that will be required.

8. Choice of Techniques. Protofour constructional methods have been developed for trackwork, wiring, rolling stock, and other aspects of model railway construction, and new techniques are continually being developed. However, much valuable information may be found in the model raiway literature and since no index of such data exists a bibliography has been compiled to assist the Protofour modeller.

Space does not allow the bibliography to be fully comprehensive and, in general, prototype data is not included. However, enough references are included to cover most areas with which modellers are likely to be concerned. The abstract covers journals up to mid-1971 and supplements will be issued at intervals.

Abbreviations used in the Bibliography
MR - Model Railroader (USA)
MRs - Model Railways (GB)
MRC - Model Railway Constructor (GB)
MRN - Model Railway News (GB)
RM - Railway Modeller (GB)
RMC - Railroad Model Craftsman (USA)

Automatic Control for Model Railways. W. L.Williamson. MRN, 31, Aug 1955.
Automatic Cab Control. R.D.Geere. MRC 36, June/July 1969.
Photogenic Pike (layout) with ATC. L.H.Westcott. MR, 31, July 1964.
Control by Relays. A.C.Wehrli. RM, 10, June 1959.
Automatic Control. A.C.Wehrli. RM, 10, Sept 1959.
Automatic Control. W.K.Burns. RM, 12, Feb 1961.
Automatic Control. H.H.Wild. RM, 15, Aug 1964.
Sylvester (auto-control). L.N.Brownfield. RM, 15, Dec 1964.
Auto-controlled Loops. J.H.R.ussell. MRN, 37, March 1961.
Automatic Train Control. G.Bishop. MRN, 38, July 1962.

How to build Simple Baseboards. I.J.Swain. MRN, 31, April 1955.
Fresh Thoughts on Baseboards. C.J.Freezer. RM, 21, Jan 1970.
Modular Baseboards. C.J.Freezer. RM, 21, Dec 1970.
Working with L-girder. G.Fordham. RM, 20, Sept 1969.
Folding Baseboards. P.L.Henbury. RM, 19, July 1968.
Baseboard Construction. R..Stone. MRN, 37, July/Aug 1961.
Build a Baseboard in 60 Minutes. MRN, 34, April 1958.
Bench and Roadbed Construction Methods. H.D.Fyffe. MR, 37, June 1970.

Plate Girder Bridges. E.B.Trotter. MRC, 23, May 1956.
Deck Type Bridges. E.B.Trotter. MRC, 23, Sept 1956.
N Girder Bridges. E.B.Trotter. MRC, 24, Feb 1957.
Edgeware Street Bridge. J.K.Nelson. RM, 23, July 1971.

Rail-built Buffer Stops. M.S.Cross. MRC, 32, Sept 1965.
A LSWR. Rail-built Buffer Stop. F.Crudass. RM, 21, June 1970

Brick Enginehouse. E.D.Lynch. MR, 22, Jan 1955.
Taking Pains with Panes. J.Kunzelmann. MR, 31, Nov 1964.
Construction of Buildings on the Trawsfyndd NG Railway. T.Hughes. MRC, 36, May 1969.
Building Finishes for Indoor and Outdoor Buildings. D. M.Stokes. MRC, 36, Aug 1969.
Platform Seats. E.Crudgington. MRC, 33, Oct 1966.
Warehouses. S.Elson. RM, 8, Jan 1957.
Coombe Coaling Stage. C.Oates. RM, 9, Feb 1958.
Thatch. G.W.Shobbrook. RM, 10, June 1959.
A Station in Stone. H.H.Tetlow. RM, 10, July 1959.
Make a Goods Shed. M.A.Randall. RM, 11, Nov1960.
Building a Small Gasworks. P.B.Denny. RM, 12, June 1961.
Stone Buildings. L.Stirling. RM, 14, Feb 1963.
Modelling Midland Buildings. D.Jenkinson. RM, 14, Nov 1963.
Lettering Store Windows. D.D.Verner. MR, 25, Sept 1958.
Station Valancing. J.Shortland. MRN, 38, Feb 1962.
Building a R.egency House. M.Kelly. MRN, 44, June 1968.
Modelling Prototype Structures. H.E.Fisher. RM, 15, Oct 1964.
How I Built 'Old Mill Farm'. C.Oates. RM, 6, Jan 1955.
Constructing a Station Building to LNWR Design. J.K.Nelson. RM, 5, July 1954.
One for the Slate. (slate roofs). A.H.A.Bastable. RM, 22, May 1971.
MR Coaling Stage. A.Whitehead. RM, 20, Jan 1969.
How to Build a MR Signal Cabin. W.Hudson. RM, 20, Sept 1969.
That Would Make a Good Model. K.Ball. RM, 19, June 1968.
Emboss Masonry This Way. A.H.A.Bastable. RM, 17, Feb 1966.
Winyards Gap Inn. M.A.Randall. RM, 17, Aug 1966.
Making LNWR Station Screens. J.K.Nelson. MRN, 36, March 1960.
A Country Loading Bay. R..Stone. MRN, 37, Aug 1961.
Some Notes on Model Buildings. M.Kelly. MRN, 38, May 1962.
The Madder Valley Makes Bricks. J.H.Ahern. MRN, 30, Dec 1954.
Modelling a Country Goods Shed. I.J. Swain. MRN, 29, Aug 1953.
Building in Wood. C.E.Vier. MRN, 39, Oct 1963.
Buildings. C.E.Vier. MRN, 40, Jan 1964.

Ynys Gwyntog. C .Burch. MRN, 40, Sept/Dec 1964. Wood Splint Buildings. W.Hall. MR, 23, April 1956.
Modelling Textures with Sandpaper. F.P.Adams. MR, 28, June 1961.
Staining Wood for Model Structures. A.J.Crell. MR, 29, May 1962.
Building with Wood. D.Reschenberg. MR, 29, June 1962.
A Small Brick Station. J.E.Findlay. MR, 33, Nov/Dec 1966.
Structures from the Ground Up. MR, 34, July 1967.
Buildings in Miniature. G.I.Stokes. Peco Publications.
Miniature Building Construction. J. H .Ahern. Percival Marshall.

Coachbuilding in Plastic. L.J.Muir. MRC, 31, Jan 1964.
Unique Coach Construction. H.Bocking. MRC, 34, Feb 1967.
A Slip (coach) in 4mm Scale. C.J.Leigh. MRC, 36, March 1969.
Plastikard Coach Construction. R.E.Parren. MRC, 33, June 1966.
Panelled Coaches in 4mm Scale. L.W.Goddard. MRC, 33, Oct 1966.
Panelling Coaches. C.E.Newell. RM, 8, March 1957.
Coaches in Card. W.H.Tate. RM, 12, Aug1961.
Coaches from Card. B.S.Turner. RM, 14, Nov1963.
Constructing Small Scale Coaches. J.K.Nelson. RM, 3, Sept 1952.
Corridor Connections. H.I.Fuller. RM, 16, Feb 1965.
Coach Construction. D.Jenkinson. RM, 20, May/June 1969.
Coach Construction. L.B.Eaglen. RM, 20, Nov 1969.
LMS Coach Livery. D.Jenkinson & R.J.Essery. RM, 18, Sept 1967.
Carriage Roofs. A.Jamal. MRN, 35, Feb 1959.
Windows in Coaching Stock. M.G.Foster. MRN, 34, Nov1958.
Building BR. Steel Coaches. D.A.Williams. MRN, 29, July/Aug 1953.
Coach Building in Plastikard. E.R.H.Francis. MRN, 45, Feb 1969.
Coaches for Pendon. S.C.Hine & G.Williams. MRN, 44, June 1968.

Detailing the Ratio 4-wheel Coach Kits. E.R.H.Francis. MRC, 37, July 1970.
Building and Detailing a GWR 40ft PLV (K's kit). E.R.H.Francis. MRC, 38, Jan 1971.
Building a K's Autocoach Kit. J.Beeston. MRN, 43, April 1967.
Building K's 40ft GW Van. E.R.H.Francis. MRN, 45, Jan 1969.

Constructing GWR Dreadnought Coaches. E.R.H.Francis. MRC, 37, Jan 1970.
GWR Concertina Coaches. E.R.H.Francis. MRC, 37, May 1970.
A 40ft GWR Tn-composite Coach. E.R.H.Francis. MRC, 36, May 1969.
GWR Bow-ended >B' Sets. E.R.H.Francis. MRC, 36, Aug 1969.
LSWR Passenger Coaches in 4mm Scale. T.Sedgewick. MRC, 36, Nov 1969.
GWR Hawksworth Corridor Stock. E.R.H.Francis. MRC, 38, May 1971.
Batch Building LNWR Coaches. D.J.Nix. MRC, 35, Nov 1968.
Panel Game (Teak Coaches). R.Scott. RM, 10, Dec 1969.
LMS Coaches. LMS Society. RM, 15, Nov 1964: RM, 17, Feb/June/July/Sept/Nov 1966:RM, 18, March/July/Nov 1967: RM, 19, Jan/March/May/July/SeptNov 1968: RM, 20, Jan/March 1969.
LNER Coaches in 4mm Scale. M.N.Williams. RM, 15, Oct 1964.
Midland Pullman. D Jenkinson. RM, 16, Feb 1965.
Early Southern Coaches. T.Gough. RM, 18, June 1967 to RM, 19, Feb 1968.
Painting Pullmans. G.M.J.Chesmore. MRN, 30, July 1954.
GWR Auto-trailer. E.R.H.Francis. MRN, 46, July 1970.
A GWR Composite Carriage in 4mm. E.R.H.Francis. MRN, 45, Oct 1969.
LNER Coaches in Teak. W.G.Ascough. MRN, 44, Feb 1968.
Modelling GWR 70ft Coaches. S.C.Hine & G.Williams. MRN, 44, March 1968.
A Gresley Brake Composite for Pendon. E.R.H.Francis. MRN, 46, Sept.1970.
South Eastern & Chatham 'Continental' Stock. E.R.H.Francis. MRN, 47, Jan 1971.

Making Your Own Castings. K.N.Lowry. MR, 20, Oct 1953.
Casting with Cerrobend Low Temperature Alloy. G.Allen. MR, 21, July/Aug 1954.
Cold Casting Small Detailed Parts. J.Work MR, 28, March 1961.

Models by the Million (Silastic RTV), P.W.Swanson. MR, 28, Sept 1961.
Casting with Cerro. T.Saunders & L.Madsen. MR, 26, Aug1959.
Casting in Rubber Moulds. P.Mallery. MR, 23, July 1956.

Making Control Panels. D.Milton. MRC, 34, Nov 1967.
A New Control Panel. K.A.Ross. MR, 14, Aug 1963.
Controls and Control Panels. I.Thwaites. RM, 19, April 1968.
Practical Control Panel Wiring. MR Staff, MR, 32, July 1965.
Track Indicating Control Board. G.Allen. MR, 23, March 1956. Recessed Control Panel. P.Larsen. MR, 23, Oct 1956.
A Simple Control Panel. M.Kelly. MRN, 44, Nov 1968.

Sensitive 'block in use' Detector. M. Jeune. MR, 36, March 1969.
Train Exchange. L.E.Carroll. MRN, 31, May1955.
Train Annunciator (Twin-T). L.H.Westcott. MR, 27, April 1960.
Walkaround Locomotive Control. D.V.Blunt. MR, 32, Oct 1965.
I Call It Mobile Cab Control. H.H.D.Heiberg. MR, 32, Nov 1965.
Which Way the Switch (electronic switch throw memory). P.W.Zeismer. MR, 35, May 1968.
Improved Wiring for Passing Tracks. H.Chaudiere. MR, 35, Sept 1968.
Controlling Hidden Storage Tracks. O. Oleson & W. Towers. MR, 31, May 1964.
Route Cab Control. L .H .Westcott. MR, 24, April/May/June/July/Aug/Sept 1957.
Train Speedometer. L.H.Westcott. MR, 21, May1954.
Twin Cab Control. D.J.Ashcroft. RM, 16, Oct 1965.
Control at Charford. J.Charman. RM, 18, May 1967.
Common Link Cab Control. J.Brooks. RM, 17, Nov 1966.
Slave Cab Control. T.Davies. MRN, 36, Oct 1960.
Walkaround Control on the Ma and Pa. MR, 32, April 1965.
Cab Control: The Best for Most. MR Staff. MR, 32, June 1965.
Walkaround Control for Two Trains. MR Staff. MR, 32, July 1965.
Linked-Section Control. L.E.Carroll. MRN, 34, June 1968.

A Comprehensive Control System. A.L.Ross. MRN, 32, Sept/Oct 1956; MRN, 33, Feb 1957. Individual Supply. D.A.Williams. MRN, 30, Feb 1954.

Cab Control. D.A.Williams. MRN, 29, Jan 1953.

Linked Section Control. L.E.Carroll. MRN, 29, Sept/Oct/Dec 1953; MRN, 30, Jan 1954. Permissive Cab Control. G.Atkinson. MRN, 43, Feb 1967.
The X-Section (Cab Control). P.Mallery. MRN, 45, July 1969.
'Delaware' Cab Control. P.Mallery. MR, 25, March 1958.
X-Section - The Simplifier of Cab Control. MR, 25, March 1958.
Walkaround Locomotive Control. R.E.N. van Dort. MR, 33, June 1966.
Three Controls from Two Wires. MR, 34, Nov 1967.

An Automatic Electronic Controller. J.R. Prentice. MRC, 37, March 1970.
Improved Transistor Throttle (TAT IV). L.H.Westcott. RM, 36, March1969.
Transistor Throttle C Worth the Cost?. C.Wood. MR, 30, June 1963.
P.C.Boards Make Wiring Easier. D.G.Mitchell. MR, 30, Aug 1963.
Anyone Can Wire This Throttle. MR Staff. MR, 30, Aug 1963.
Troubleshooting Transistor Throttles. L.H.Westcott. MR, 31, Nov 1964.
An SCR Throttle with Momentum Effects. P.Bachert. MR, 35, March 1968.
The Fabulous Dirt Button. P.Mallery. MR, 24, March 1957.
Whnt is Pulsed Power? L.H.Westcott. MR, 21, Feb 1954.
A New Dimension in Control. C.T.Eley. RM, 13, Aug/Sept/Oct 1962. (See also Letters - RM, 13, Dec 1962).
Modifying the Transistor Controller. M.Phillips. RM, 16, May 1965. (See also Letters C RM, 16, June/Sept 1965).
Control by Power Transistors. P.J.Westoby. MRN, 37, Jan 1961.
PP with VP (Pulse Power). D.A.Williams. MRN, 38, Feb 1962.
ATC with Preset and Momentum Effects. L.H.Westcott. MR, 32, June 1965.
PureCPulse Transistor Throttle. D.Fyffe. MR, 35, Jan 1965. (See also MR, 32, April 1965).
A Switched DC Controller. A.C.Mulvey. MRN, 41, April 1965.
Control. D.Warr. ME.N, 42, Feb/March/April 1966.
Some Sneaky Faults of Transistor Throttles. L.H.Westcott. MR, 28, Oct 1961.
Dirt Cutting Hot Spot Device for the Transistor Throttle. L.H.Westcott. MR, 28. Nov 1961.
Seven Circuits for Transistor Throttles. L.H.Westcott. MR, 29, Jan/Feb 1962.
Schmidt Trigger for Pure Pulse Control. G.Odegard. MR, 33, April 1966.
Simple Speed Control for Switching. J.R..Kissinger. MR, 33, Sept 1966.
SCR's for Power Packs. H.R.Wahlin. MR, 34, March 1967.
Improved Pulse with Ordinary Power Packs. P.O.Farnham. MR, 34, July 1967.

DRAWINGS, DATA ETC.. (including associated techniques).
Proportional Dividers. R.D.Drew. MRC, 31, Feb 1964.
Dimensioned Drawings from Photographs. J.Nicholson. MRC, 36, June 1969.
Drawings for Pleasure and Posterity. N.Campling. MRC, 36, Sept 1969. (See also MRC, 36, Nov 1969).
An index. C.J.Peacock. RM, 14, Oct1963.
Indexing Model Railway Information. J.Dowding. RM, 22, May 1971.
The Development of Orthographic Plan and Elevation from Photographs. H. F. Lane. MRN, 41, Jan 1965.

A to Z of Wiring. F.Dyer. MRC, 27, Aug 1959 to MRC, 28, Dec 1960.
Pushbuttons by the Dozen. D.S.Smith. MR., 27, July 1960.
Transistors for Model Circuitry. M.Vogt. MR, 30, May 1963.
Transistors for Model Railways. R. .A.Ganderton. RM, 19, June 1968.
Meters on the Railway. F.Vousden. MRN, 35, March 1959.
Model Railway Wiring Practice, F .Vousden. MRN, 34, Jan to Dec 1958.
Multi-contact Switches for Track Circuiting. Reynold & L.H.Weedon. MRN, 32, May 1956.
Model Railways and TV Suppression. A.Farnworth. MRN, 28, July 1952.
Lamp Bulbs Meter Your Control. MR, 29, Jan 1962.
Reducing Motor Static. H.Chaudiere. MR, 34, April 1967.
Fast Circuit Breaker. D.G.Steer. MR, 34, Aug 1957.
How to Wire Your Model Railroad. L.H.Westcott. Kalmbach Publishing Co.

Make Your Own Scale Figures. J.Work. MR, 32, Feb 1965.
Fun with Figures. A.C.Wehrli & C.H.Millen. RM, 7, Sept 1956.
More Funwith Figures. J.H.Ahern. RM, 7, Nov1956.

Why Not in the Loft. L.Painter. MRC, 30, Feb 1963.
Layout Aloft. J.G.Mclnnes. MRC, 31, May1964.
Adapting the Attic. G.Hollis. RM, 13, Oct 1962.
EM Gauge Out of Doors. N.F.W.Dyckhoff. RM, 18, Aug 1967.
A Building Project for Space Economy. MRN, 35, Sept 1959.
Bedroom Railroad. G.Baustert. MR, 23, Nov 1956.
Can a Small Scale Pike (layout) Endure Weather? E.Herkner. MR, 33, Sept. 1966.

Scale Speeds. C.A.H.Riches. MRC, 21, May 1954.
Operating a Model Railway. K. N. Jeffries, MRC, 28, F eb/April/May/June/July/Aug/Sept/Oct/Nov 1961.
Scale Speed. D.H.Pilcher. MRC, 31, Oct 1964.
Express Freight. H.E.Pickering. MRC, 32, Oct 1965.
Passenger Trains for the Modeller. D.Jenkinson. MRC, 34, Nov/Dec 1967.
Freight Train Formations. M.Waters. MRC, 38, May 1971.
Scaling Down Time. C.E.Taylor-Nobbs. MRC, 33, Aug 1966.
On Shed - Layout and Procedure at MPD's. R.J.Essery. MRC, 35, Oct/Nov 1968.
Coaling Up. R.J.Essery. RM, 14, Sept1963.
Goods Train Operation. D.J.Ashcroft. RM, 15, Jan 1964.
Stock Working at Portreath. R.J.Essery. RM, 13, Dec1962.
Model Railway Stock Working. D.E.Cottle. MRN, 36, Oct 1960.
Freight Train Operation of Model Railways. E .W.Gilmore. MRN, 37, May/June/July/Aug/Sept/ Oct/Nov/Dec 1961; MRN, 38, Jan/Feb/March 1962.
A Balanced Freight Stock. R.W.G.Bryant. MRN, 39, June 1963.
Why Use Scale Time. J.Allen. MR, 33, June 1966.
Headcodes and Tail Lamps. K.N.Jeffries. MRC, 29, Jan/Feb 1962.

From Nonsuch to Ruxley, the '00' Gauge Layout of the Epsom & Ewell MRC, MRC, 30, March/April/June/Aug/Sept/Oct/Nov/Dec 1963; MRC, 31, Jan/Feb 1964.
Presson. J.Langan. RM, 13, Dec 1962.
Modelling the Settle & Carlisle. D. Jenkinson. RM, 17, Jan/Feb 1966.
Northchurch. S.Stubbs. RM, 17, April 1966.
Marthwaite Revised. D.Jenkinson. RM, 17, Nov/Dec 1966.

An Automatic Level Crossing. D.Collier. MRC, 22, Jan 1955.
A Gauge '00' Level Crossing. C.Hughes. MRC, 19, Aug/Sept 1952.
Automatic Operation of Level Crossing Gates. L.Walters. MRC, 19, Dec 1952.
Automatic Level Crossing. L. N. Brownfield. RM, 16, Feb 1965.
Level Crossing (Hot Wire Operation). D.Johnson. MRN, 39, March 1963.
A Working Level Crossing. E.Coleby. MRC, 13, July 1946.

Lights that stay Lit (HF Lighting). M.English & B.Gilliland. MR, 17, April 1950.
HF Coach Lighting. D.Taylor. RM, 21, May 1970.
Sequence Lighting Drum Controller. B.Heatley. MR, 19, Dec 1952.
Lighting-Up Time. M.A . Randall. RM, 13, Oct 1962.
Fully Automatic (Lighting Sequence). RM, 12, Nov 1961.
Don't Let the Lights Go Out (HF Lighting). S.Hine. MRN, 47, July 1971.

Realistic Performance. C.Douds. MR, 30, May 1963.
Finite Control of Locomotive Motors. MRN, 41, Sept 1965.

Model Locomotive Construction in 4mm Scale. G.Williams. MRC, 37, Jan/Feb/March/May/ June/July/Aug/Oct/Nov 1970; MRC, 38, Jan/Feb/March/April 1971.
Rear Coupling for 0-4-4 Tanks. MRC, 20, April 1953.
Locomotive Building in 4mm Scale. A.J.East. MRC, 35, Jan/Feb/March 1968.
Locomotive Maintenance Cradle. K. Northwood. RM, 3, Sept 1952.
The Streamline Era. C.A.Vettiger. RM, 16, Dec 1965.
The Design and Assembly of Side Rods. R..C.Ormiston-Chant. RM, 13, Jan 1962.
Build Your Own >00' Locomotives. S.J.Taylor. RM, 13, June 1962.
SR. Locomotive Livery. T.Sedgewick. RM, 20, Aug 1969.
Simple Fluting for Motion. H.A.Turvey. RM, 20, Aug 1969.
Locomotive Construction. M.Lloyd. RM, 18, July 1967.
Number Plates & Boiler Bands. R.C.Ormiston-Chant. RM, 17, July 1966.
Maximum Traction (slow running diesel). D.N.Sprittles. RM, 17, Oct 1966.
Model Locomotive Construction. A. Jamal. MRN, 36, May/June/July/Aug 1960.
Modelling Locomotive Name & Number Plates. G.H.Hatch. MRN, 36, Oct 1960.
The Faiveley Pantograph. J.Wood. MRN, 38, July 1962; MRC, 29, March 1962.
Building a 4mm Scale Chassis. A.Jamal. MRN, 38, Sept/Oct/Nov 1962.
Locomotive Cradles. MRN, 38, Aug 1962.
Some Say 'Good Old Walchaerts'. R. Kinsey. MRN, 30, Jan 1954.
Three Ways with Walchaerts. J.R.. Suthers. MRN, 32, May 1956.
Making Locomotive Mainframes. D.A.Williams. MRN, 32, Aug 1956.
The Gentle Art of Beading. R.Kinsey. MRN, 29, June 1953.
Single Slidebar Motion in 4mm Scale. R..P.I.Murray. MRN, 47, Feb 1971.
Safe-weight Your Locomotives. L.H.Westcott. MR, 23, Sept 1956.
Operation Flywheel. G.K.Isaacs. MR, 28, Oct 1961.
Modelling Locomotives, F.J.Roche. MRC, 14, June 1947 et seq.
3D Pantograph. A.W.Arnemann. MR, 32, Sept/Nov 1965.
Miniature Locomotive Construction. J. H. Ahern. Percival Marshall.

The Story of a Jubilee Class Galatea (Wills Kit). R.J.Essery. MRC, 37, May 1970.
LNER Class A3 4-6-2 (Jamieson Kit). J.A.Evans. MRC, 37, Aug/Sept 1970
Castle Class (Hornby-Dublo). G.Ainge. MRC, 31, Oct 1964.
Western (Trix Western Diesel). C.J. Leigh. MRC, 32, Dec 1965.
Variations on a Hall (Triang-Hornby). C. J. Leigh. MRC, 34, Feb 1967.
An Inexpensive M7. (Triang-Hornby). C.J.Leigh. MRC, 34, Aug 1967.
Cast Metal Kits. R.C.Ormiston-Chant. MRC, 38, Feb/March/April/May/June 1971.
Building 30200 (Wills 02 Kit). F.Crudass. MRC, 33, March 1966.
GCR 4-4-0 Director (Bec Kit). J.A.Evans. MRC, 33, June 1966.
Detailing the Triang Hymek. MRC, 33, Aug 1966.
Brittania (Triang). C.J. Leigh. MRC, 35, April 1968.
Sirocco - LNWR Precursor 4-4-0 (Gem Kit). D.Rowland. MRC, 35, June 1968.
A Merchant Navy Class in 4mm Scale (Hornby-Dublo). A.Goodall. MRC, 35, July 1968.
From Kit to King (Jamieson Kit). T. Thoday. MRC, 35, Aug/Sept 1968.
Assembling Sheet Metal Loco Kits. H.M.Pryke. RM, 12, Sept 1961.
Improving the Triang-Hornby Princess. N.Burgess. RM, 21, March 1970.
A Trio of Compounds - MR 4-4-0 (Gem Kit). L.W.Goddard. RM, 22, Jan 1971.
A Detailed Dean Goods (K's Kit). MRN, 35, Oct 1959.
Chassis for a K3 (Wills Kit). A.Bowie. MRN, 37, Dec 1961.
Detailing a LNWR Coal Tank (K's Kit). J.Denison. MRN, 34, Dec 1958.
6332 GWR 2C6C0 (K,s Kit). R..J.Essery & D.Field. MRN, 39, July1963.
Detailing a 4mm LMS Class 4 (Wills Kit). R.J.Essery. MRN, 41, Feb/March 1965.
Kirtley No. 22834 (K's Kit). R.J.Essery. MRN, 41, May 1965.
Sirocco or 25297 (Gem Kit). J.A.Horton. MRN, 41, July1965.
Detailing a Stanier Class 8 (Hornby-Dublo). LMS Society. MRN, 41, Nov 1965.
Castor & Pollux - Johnson Single (K's Kit). R.Mills & D.Jenkinson. MRN, 42, Nov/Dec 1966; MRN, 43, Jan 1967.
Detailing an M 7 (Triang-Hornby). M. N. Lollich. MRN, 44, March 1968.
Merrie Carlisle (Gem, LNWR Jumbo Kit). J.Brewer. MRN, 45, March 1969.
A Johnson 'Belpaire' in EM (Gem Midland 4-4-0 Kit). LMS Society. MRN, 44, July/Aug/ Sept 1968.

A 4mm Scale GW Castle Loco. J.M.Bickford. MRC, 16, July 1949.
Great Northern- 4mm LNER Al. C.Cauchi. MRC, 31, May/June/July 1964.
Beattie LSWR 2-4-0 Well Tank. F.Crudass. MRC, 34, April/May 1967.
Vive l'Alliance (GWR de Glehn 4-4-2). A.J.East. MRC, 36, Jan/Feb 1969.
Duke of Connaught (4mm Claughton). D.Jenkinson, K.King & R.Mills. MRC, 36, June/July 1969.
The ex-ROD 2-8-0's. J.A.Evans. MRC, 35, Feb/April 1968.
The Story of Two Bulldogs. A.S. Taylor, RM, 8, Jan/Feb/March/April/May/June 1957.
LNWR Prince of Wales 4-6-0 in 4mm Scale. I.Anderson. RM, 16, March 1965.
The Caley 'Greybacks' (Pickersgill '60' Class 4-6-0's). G.A.Russell. RM, 20, March 1969.
Urie's Monster CH16 Class. L.A.Vass. RM, 20, Dec 1969.
Building a J6. J.A.Evans & P.Everton. RM, 19, Aug 1968.
How I Built 7238 (LMS 3F). R..J.Essery. RM, 19, Nov 1968.
Number 37 - a Furness 2-2-2 WT in 4mm Scale. R.Pochin. RM, 19, Dec 1968; RM, 20, Jan 1969.
Building a NER G5. F.Coulton. RM, 18, Feb 1967.
Building a 'Barnum'. W.D.Doyle. RM, 17, July/Aug/Sept 1966.
Barnstaple (SR West Country Class). J.Newton. MRN, 36, Sept 1960. (See also MRN, 36, Dec 1960.
Building from Scratch (Fowler 0-6-0). J.E.Brooks. MRN, 37, June 1961.
Southern Class Z. R.Warboys. MRN, 39, March/April/May/June/July 1963.
The Crabs. LMS Society. MRN, 46, June 1970.
LMS 2F in EM. J.A.Horton - LMS Society. MRN, 46, July 1970.
A Princess Royal in EM. G.Holt. MRN, 47, April/May 1971.
Constructing a Model of the GWR 4-4-2 Loco 'North Star'. W.B.Kelsall. MRN, 44, Jan 1968.
A 1361 Class GWR 0-6-0 ST for '00' Gauge. L.W.Jones. MRN, 44, Jan/Feb 1968.
Ninety Two, Two Forty Five (BR Class 9). J.Newton. MRN, 39, Sept 1963.
5265 (Stanier Class 5). B.Jarrett & R.J.Essery. MRN, 39, Dec 1963.
Warboys Builds a T9. R.Warboys. MRN, 40, March/April/May/July 1964.
The Deeley Tanks of the MR, or 'Flatirons'. LMS Society. MRN, 42, April/May 1966.
LMS Locos for Modellers - 'The Jinties'. R.J.Essery. MRN, 47, Jan 1971.
'Duke of Gloucester' - a 4mm Model. J.Crow. MRN, 46, Sept 1970.
A GW Dean Single. M.Hodges. MRN, 44, Oct/Nov 1968.
Building 'Selsey' (West Sussex 2-4-2 T in EEM). John L.Davies. MRN, 44, April/May 1968.

Locomotive Maintenance. R.H.Warring. MRN, 40, Aug 1964.
Motor Maintenance. P.Mallery. MR, 23, April 1956.

The Strathmore Story. W.J.Clouser. MR., 26, Feb 1959.
Glass-Fibre C A New Angle on Scenery. B.L.Marlow. MRC, 26, Oct 1959.
Silk Screen Printing. M.Brooslin. MR, 20, March 1953.
Plastic Sheet Modelling. J.Harrison. RM, 13, March 1962.
Make Your Own Transfers. D.Taylor. RM, 21, Feb 1970.
Styrene Sheet Dodges. D.Halfpenny. RM, 21, Oct 1970.
Points for Modellers (Entomological Pins). F.C.Olley. MRN, 36, Oct 1960.
Making a Balsawood Stripper and Cutting Jig. D.G.Lee. MRN, 34, Dec 1958.
Fibre-Glass. G.M.J.Chesmore. MR.N, 30, Aug1954.
Glass-Fibre Technique. P.Jones. MRN, 47, Feb/April/July 1971.
Plastic Modelling. M.Andress. MRN, 45, Nov 1969.
Modelling with a Burning Tool. E.L.Moore. MR., 29, July 1962.
The Case for Styrene (Polystyrene). A.B.Armitage. MR., 26, Nov/Dec 1959.
Getting Things Square. M.S.Cross. 'Precision', Sept.1970.
Plastic Moulding at Home. C. Binnie. MRN, 44, June/July/Aug/Sept 1968.

A Reason for the Prototype. K.N.Jeffries. MRC, 29, March 1962.
Self-hardening Sealants for Axles and the Like. B.Higgins. MR, 38 May 1971.
Realism in Miniature. G.I.Stokes. RM, 9, Nov 1958.
Creating Atmosphere. C.R.Millen & A.C.Wehrli. RM, 6, April 1955.
Perspective in Colour. J.Bailey. RM, 18, April/May 1967.
A Locomotive Lifting Tripod. MRN, 33, April 1957.
Target Name Boards (Notice Boards). H.A.Robinson. MRN, 33, July 1957.
Modelling Overhead Electrification Equipment in 4mm Scale. P. L. Shaw. MRN, 39, April/May/ June1963.
If I Could Do lt Again. D.R.Lee. MR, 33, April1966.
4mm Scale Narrow Boats. P.& M.Towers, P.G.Brennand, C.R.Burch. MRN, 43, Nov 1967.

Improving Commercial Motors. M.S.Cross. MRC, 29, Feb 1962.
Rebuild that Old Motor. L.S.Pettifer. MRN, 31, Jan 1955.
Improved Efficiency in '00' Gauge Mechanisms. RM, 1, Feb 1950.
Toward Perfect Motor Response in Locomotives. L.H.Westcott. MR., 35, Jan 1965.

Building Your Own Motor. J.Langan. MRN, 40, Nov/Dec 1964. (See also Letters - MRN, 41, Feb 1965).
Troubleshooting Worm Gear Drives. G.Odegard. MR., 29, June 1962.
Adjusting Motor Tension. J.W.Matthews. MR., 33, Jan 1966.
Gears & Gearing. MR, 33, Feb 1966.
Smooth and Quiet Drive. B.Higgins. MR., 33, Aug 1966.
Motor Brush Physics. G.Odegard. - MR., 33, Dec 1966.
An Outline of Motor Design. MR., 34, Oct 1967.

Weathering Freight Cars. J.Kalbach. MR, 22, Jan 1955.
Ageing and Weathering Cars. J.Allen. MR, 22, Dec 1955.
Professional Painting. W.J.Clouser. MR, 26, March 1959.
Painting Model Backdrops. D.K.Houston. MR., 31, Jan 1964.
Locomotives with Character. MR, 31, Jan 1964
Ageing Boards & Shingles. L.E.Black. MR., 38, April 1971.
Paint Your Own Backscene. P.B.Denny. RM, 10, Jan 1959.
Bending the Backscene. M.A.Randall. RM, 12, July 1961.
Painting and Lettering. J.G. de Steese. RM, 12, Nov/Dec 1961; RM, 13, Jan 1962.
Painting Simplified. T.S.Nunn. RM, 13, May 1962.
In and Out the Paint Shop. R.. Pochin. RM, 17, March 1966.
Do You Have Trouble Lettering Wagons? J.Roxburgh. MR.N, 39, June 1963.
Painting Plastics. S.P.Mackee. MR.N, 39, June 1963. Watch Your Face. C.B.Foster. MRN, 41, Nov1965.
Ageing & Weathering Cars and Locomotives. J.Allen. MR., 23, Jan 1956.
Painting and Finishing. MR, 23, Feb 1956.
Hand Lettering and Striping Models. M.Thornburgh. MR., 23, Aug 1956.
How to Paint a Locomotive. J.L.Oliver. MR., 33, Jan 1966.
Use Casein on Rolling Stock too. A.Armitage. MR., 33, Feb 1966.
Air Painting Equipment. P.H.Kohl. MR., 34, June 1967.
Silk Screen for Road Names. C.S.Foote. MR, 34, Aug 1967.
Hand Lettering of Goods Stock. A.Gibson. MRN, 45, July 1969.
Painting the Goods Fleet. I.Fyvie. MRC, 33, Dec 1966.

Photofinish. J.W.Morley. MRC, 34, Sept 1967.
Model Photography. H.H.Wills. MRC, 26, Jan/Feb/March 1959; (Also Letters - April 1959).
Sunlight for Model Photos. R. T.Pritchard. MR., 37, May 1970.
Photographing the Model Scene. B.King. MR, 33, March 1966.
Model Colour Photography. G.Odegard. MR, 33, June 1966.
The Camera as a Modelling Tool. L.H.Westcott. MR., 33, Nov 1966.
Ride Your Own Caboose. E . Hohlfeld. MR, 33, Nov 1966.

Some Thoughts on Track Design. R.G.Thomas. MRN, 37, Jan 1961.
Branch Lines. J.L.Flann. MRN, 46, May 1970.
Thoughts on Constructing Layouts. M.Waters. MRN, 46, April 1970.
Ordnance Survey Maps. W.F.Tucker. 'Precision', 2, May 1971.

How to Install Curved Platforms. D.A.Williams. MRN, 30, Nov1954.
Curved Platforms and Buildings. J.A.Ashford. RM, 17, May 1966.

Making Coloured Posters. P.D.Hancock. RM, 10, July 1959.

Simple Stabiliser for Power Units. R.A.Ganderton. MRC, 34, June 1967. (See also MRC, 34, Dec 1967).
Power Supply and Control. A.L.Ross. MRN, 35, Jan/Feb/March 1959.
Make Your Own Power Pack. H.W.Russell. MR, 33, Oct 1966

Protofour. Model Railway Study Group. MRC, 34, Jan - Sept 1967; MRC, 35, April/Nov 1968; MRC, 36, April 1969; MRC, 37, Aug 1970; MRN, 42, Aug/Sept 1966.
The Development Of Protofour. M.S.Cross. 'Precision; 1, Sept 1970.
Layout Meetings & the Exhibition of Protofour Layouts. B.E.Weller. 'Precision', 1, Sept 1970.
Converting Airfix Kits (to Protofour). M.S.Cross. 'Precision', 1, Sept 1970.
Converting PECO Wonderful Wagons. (to Protofour). M.S.Cross. 'Precision'. 2. May 1971.
Standardisation of Locomotive Direction Control. B.E.Weller. 'Precision', 2, May 1971.
Making a Crossing Vee Jig. K.Marling. 'Precision', 2, May 1971.
The RATIO SR Box Van. M.S.Cross. 'Precision', 2, May1971.
Yes - But How Does It Stay on the Track? Model Railway Study Group. 'Precision', 2, May 1971.

Riveting. 'North Star'. RM, 2, Feb/March 1951.
Rivet Embossing Tool. M.Hodges. MRN, 38, Oct 1962.
Entomological Pins as Rivets. G. Pember. MRN, 42, Feb 1966.

Punching for Pleasure (Small component manufacture). J.Whittaker. MRC, 34, April 1967.
Think Again (Construction ideas). J.Whittaker. MRC, 34, Oct 1967.
A Chassis Jig. J.Denison. MRC, 36, Sept 1969.
Push-Pull Survey. R.J.Essery. RM, 15, June/July/Aug 1964.
Rolling Stock Re-railer. K.Northwood. RM, 4, Nov 1953.
The Alex Jackson Coupling. J.Langan & N.Whitnall. MRN, 36, Jan 1960.
Weighting for a Train. A.N.Dawkins & L.G.Lyle. MRN, 36, Nov 1960.
How to Prevent Buffer Locking. L.E.Carroll. MRN, 30, May 1954.
Track and Clearance Analysis Car. J.A.Morton. MR., 28, Aug 1961.

Laminated Styrofoam (Expanded Polystyrene) Scenery. W.E.Eckhardt. MR, 26, Sept 1959.
How to Blend Scenery. J.Work. MR., 27, Oct 1960.
Landscape Modelling. M.A.Randall. RM, 14, March 1963.
Basic Scenic Modelling. A.J.Shepherd. RM, 12, March 1961.
Scenic Modelling. P.D.Hancock. RM, 3, May 1952.
Painting Model Scenery. J.Kine. MRN, 37, April 1961.
Town and Country. D.M.Stokes. MRN, 37, April 1961.
Zip and the Scenery Looks Fine. L.H.Westcott. MR., 32 April 1965.
Plaster Mixing Data, Colours and Formulae. L.H.Westcott. MR., 32, April 1965.
Brief Survey of Scenery Plasters. L.H.Westcott. MR., 32, April 1965.
Styrofoam (Expanded Polystyrene) for Scenery. P.Stromberg. MR., 35, Jan 1965.
Hard Shell Scenery. L.H.Westcott. MR., 35, March 1965.
Lineside Scenery and Tunnels. J.K.Nelson. MRN, 29, June 1953.
Take Note. C.Foster. MRN, 46, July 1970.
Behindthe Scenes. B.Frost. MR., 23, Nov1956.
Three Dimensional Pond. M.B.Wakefield. MR., 25, April 1958.
How to Cast Rock. R..W.Turner. MR., 28, Jan 1961.
Sudden Scenery on the Sierra Pintada. B.Rau. MR., 33, March 1966.
12345: Zip Code for the E. & 0. G.Odegard. MR., 34, Feb1967.
Rock Castings from Rubber Moulds. B.McClanahan. MR., 34, May 1967.
Shaping Tools for Styrofoam (Expanded Polystyrene) Terrain. W . C. Hume. MR., 34, June 1967.
Rocks and How to Foil Them. L.A.Swickley. MR., 34, Aug 1967.
Miniature Landscape Modelling. J. H. Ahern. Percival Marshall.

Flexible Stone Walls. A.P.Hughes. MRC, 27, Oct 1960.
Modelling Grassland. P.E.Whittaker. MRC, 31, Oct 1964.
Old Board Fences. R.C.Ovresat. MR., 19, Feb 1952.
How to Detail Rocks. J.Work. MR., 26, Dec 1959.
Timber (Model Logs). J.Work. MR., 31 May 1964.
How Weeds are Grown on the WLC. L.Spears. MR., 31, Sept 1964.
Cuts, Rock Cuts and Fills. M.B.Wakefield. MR., 21, Feb 1954.
Making the Grass Grow. P.B.Denny. RM, 10, July 1959.
Earthwork. G.I.Stokes. R.M, 10, Nov1959.
Modelling Real Plaster Walls. J.Tootell. RM, 5, Oct 1954.
Stonalacher Pt.II - Bridges and Things. D. Mander. RM, 21, Sept 1970.
Stonalacher Pt.IV - Water. D.Mander. RM, 22, Jan 1971.
Scenic Effects - Water. J.Kine. MRN, 37, Jan 1961.
Lets Make a Pond. J.Work. MR., 35, Jan 1968.
A Corrugated Iron Fence. M.Andress. MRN, 44, June 1968.

Three Card Signalboxes. C.J.Leigh. MRC, 35, Dec 1968.
Linthwaite. J.Langan. MRN, 41, Feb 1965.


Matrix Control of Switch Machines. MR., 35, Nov 1968.
Snap-action Power for (2Ccoil) Switch Machines. H.D.Fyffe. MR, 31, Aug 1964. (See also MR., 31, Dec 1964).
Building a Super Semaphore (slow action signal). E . Ravenscroft. MR, 21, March 1964.
Air Operated Turnouts. G.Allen. MR., 21, June/Nov 1954.
Semaphore Operation. A.C.Wehrli. RM, 9, Oct 1958.
Controlling the Points. P.B.Denny. RM, 10, Sept 1959.
Solenoids for Swinging Semaphores. A.J.East. R.M, 12, Oct 1961.
Adjustable Solenoids for Signal Operation. R. Evans. RM, 18, June 1967.
Routing through Turnouts with Diodes. B.A.Palmer. MR., 32, April 1965.
Thermal Switch Machine. G.Odegard. MR., 32, July 1965.
Point Cranks. MRN, 32,March 1956.
Point Wiring and Auto-Selection. M.A.Sharman. MRN, 41, July 1965.
Point Control. C.R..Tigwell. MRN, 41, Nov 1965.
Simplified Switch Machine Control. P.Mallery. MR., 25, Nov 1958.
Mechanical Interlocking and Signalling. P.Larson & G.Odegard. MR., 28, Jan - April/June 1961.
Power for the Sierra Pintada. B.Rau. MR., 33, Feb 1966.
How to Make a Small Lever Frame. T.S.Jones. MRN, 31, June 1955.
Scale Point Rodding. D.A.Williams. MRC, 19, Nov 1952.
Building a Strong Lever Frame. W.A.D.Strickland. MRN, 43, Dec 1967; MRN, 44, Jan/Feb/ March1968.

Signalling Simplified. K.N.Jeffries. MRC, 27, Jan-Sept 1960.
Signal Formations. C.T.Goode. MRC, 29, Jan/Feb 1962; MRC, 32, June/Sept/Nov 1965.
Leaves from my Notebook. J. Swift. MRC, 19, Aug-Dec 1952.
Modelling Semaphore Signals. K. Longbottom. MRC, 35, Oct/Nov 1968; MRC, 36, Jan/Feb 1969.
Making Semaphore Signals. P.B.Denny. RM, 15, Feb 1964.
Semaphore Signals. K.Longbottom. RM, 16, Feb 1965.
Making LNWR Signals. I.Anderson . RM, 16, March 1965.
Wireless Signals (Signal Lighting). D. Moore. RM, 16, April 1965.
Rail-built Signals. J.Charman. RM, 17, Aug 1966.
Signalling for Model Railways. H.C.Towers. MRN, 36, JanCDec 1960.
Colour Light Signals. E.Stott. MRN, 36, Nov 1960.
Signal Sense. J.Jardine. MRN, 32, Sept 1956.
How to Make Lattice Signal Posts. D.A.Williams. MRN, 28, Jan 1952.
Six Signals. G.Pember. MRN, 41, Aug1965.
An Underslung Bracket Signal. G.Pember. MRN, 42, Sept 1966.
Modelling LNWR Signals. J.K.Nelson. MRN, 44, July 1968.

Train Control by Signals. I.J.Wallace. MRC, 15, June 1948.
Train Operated Signals. P.T.Moore. MRN, 31, Nov 1955.
Silent Signals with Twin-T. M.D.Rodgers. MR, 27, Aug 1960.
Simple but Sure Block Signals. E.Robidoux. MR., 32, Oct 1965.
Signal Detection with a SCR. M.J.Jeune. MR, 35, March 1968.
Conditional Link Control. D.Moore. MRC, 38, June 1971.
How I Built My Layout with Signals. C .K.Hurd. MR, 31, March 1964.
Relayless Signalling with Twin-T. D.Payne. MR., 31, Oct 1964. AutoCSignalling. N. Matthews. RM, 5, Aug 1954: Set 1954.
Automatic Signalling. G.Tate. RM, 16, Nov 1965.
Automatic Block Signalling. R.Dickson. RM, 13, Oct 1962.
Dry Reed Switches for Automatic Signalling. A.White. RM, 21, Aug 1970.
Transistorised Automatic Colour Light Signalling. A.Ackers. RM, 19, Feb 1968.
Automatic Signalling & Control. D.W.Ley. MRN, 30, July/Aug/Sept/Nov/Dec 1954.
How to Wire Automatic Signals. R.T.Hutt. MRN, 32, Jan/Feb/April 1956.
Signal Box SubCSectioning. L.E.Carroll. MRN, 32, June 1956.
Signals on the Sunset Valley. B.A.Chubb. MR., 37, Oct 1970.
Twin-T Signalling. L.H.Westcott. MR., 25, June/July/Aug 1958.
One-Contact Signalling Circuits. M.Vogt. MR., 29, Aug 1962.

High-Low Temperature Soldering Iron - for Cast Metal Kits. J. Charman. RM, 17, Dec 1966.
Silver Soldering. K.E.Bryant. MR, 33, Sept 1966. (See also MR., 33, Dec 1966).
Soldering. D.A.Bell. MRN, 46, Jan 1970.

Magic Diesel Horn - actuated by trackside magnetic reed switches. E.Grande. MR, 36, April 1964.
Diesel Horn Works on a Dry Cell. H.Baker. MR., 31, April 1964.
Whistle, Bell, Steam & Exhaust Sounds. H.Chaudiere. MR, 33, May 1966. (see also Correction - MR, 33, July 1966).
Simple Soundmaker for Model Railroaders. MR, 34, April 1967.
The Monster Diesel Horn. M.Vogt. MR., 34, Dec 1967.

Compiling a Timetable. K.N.Jeffries. MRC, 29, May/June 1962.
Timetable Planning. R. I. Macckie. MRC, 36, Nov1969.
Timetable Working. P.E.Barnes. RM, 17, Feb 1966.
Timetables for Model Railways. K.R.Fanshawe. MRN, 33,
Timetable Working. 'Pandora'. MRN, 28, March/April 1952.

A Piercing Saw Table. R.C.Ormiston-Chant & R.R.Cody. RM, 15, Jan 1964.
Files for Modelling. J.S.Brook Smith. MRN, 33, May 1957.
Using the Piercing Saw. D.A.Williams. MRN, 32, Jan 1956.
Pin Vices and Micrometers. D.A.Williams. MRN, 32, April 1956.
Drilling Those Tiny Holes. J.S.Brook Smith, MRN, 32, Sept 1956.
A Place for Everything. J.Newton. MRN, 40, Feb 1964.
Building a Portable Workbench. B.E.Weller. MRN, 41, June 1965.

Track is a Model Too. R.F.Cushman. MR, 22, Jan1955. Homemade Roadbed. I.Weiner. MR., 22, Jan 1955.
Conductor Rails. J.S.Brook Smith. MRC, 33, April 1966.
Bonded Ballast for Natural Appearance. L.H.Westcott. MR., 33, July 1966.

Spiral Transition Curves. Bardes, Slackhouse & Westcott. MR., 36, Oct 1969.
Transition Curves. J.C.Gyngell. MRN, 38, May 1962.
Transition Curves and Buffer Lock. MRN, 32, June 1956.
Plotting Transition Curves. R.P.Reeves. MRN, 29, April 1953.
Elliptical Transition Curve Maker. R..Culbertson. MR., 29, Sept 1962.

Carry Your Equipment in Styrofoam (Expanded Polystyrene). J. de Steese. MR., 31, Nov 1964.
A Travelling Workshop. S.Wright. MRC, 34, Aug 1967.

Tricks with a Traverser. D.Bizley. MRC, 26, Nov 1959.
Build a Traverser. G.E.Pember. RM, 8, May1957.
Who Needs Points? (Traverser). M.Sharman. MRN, 44, Dec 1968.

Trees in 4mm Scale. P.D.Hancock. MRN, 31, April 1955.
How to Process Lichen. MR. Staff. MR., 27, Jan 1960.
Tree Trunks and Stumps. J.Work. MR., 24, Sept 1957.
Grow a Forest. C.Oates. RM, 9, Jan1958.
Trees. G.I.Stokes. RM, 9, Aug 1958.
Trees from Lichen. J.F.Rimmer. RM, 10, Oct 1959.
Living Trees. G.I.Stokes. MRN, 38, Nov 1962.
Trees. D.Moore. MRN, 43, May 1967.
Behind the Scenes. B.Frost. MR., 23, Dec 1956.

Turntable Operation by Remote Control. L.Walters. MRC, 20, Aug 1953.
Remote Control for Turntables. J. G. Bishop. MRC, 31, July 1964.
Tuxedo Junction Turntable. G.Allen. MR., 22, June/Aug 1955.
Automatic Turntable Control. D.Peck & D.Smith. MR., 26, July/Aug 1959.
A Turntable for the P.H. & C. D.Reschenberg. MR., 30, Aug/Sept 1963.
The South Pass gets a Turntable. MR. Staff. MR., 24, Oct/Nov 1957.
Turntable Wiring. G.Odegard. MR., 33, Nov 1966.
Turntable Indexing with a Photocell. W.J.Stephens. MR., 33, Nov 1966.
Automatic Turntable Mechanism. W.K.Burns. RM, 11, May 1960.
Automatic Turntable for Buckingham. P.B.Denny. RM, 21, Nov 1970.
Does Your Turntable Really Work? M.Sharman. RM, 20, Dec 1969.
An EM Gauge Turntable. S.Stubbs. MRN, 36, May 1960.
Model Railway Turntable Operation. D.E.Cottle. MRN, 34, June 1958.
A Wagon Turntable. H.A.Robinson. MRN, 33, March1957.
Electrically Operated '00' Gauge Turntable. T.S.Jones. MRN, 32, Oct 1956.
Turntable Wiring. MR.N, 41, Aug 1965. (See also Letters C MRN, 41, Oct 1965).
Turntables. F.G.McCaughey. RM, 7, Oct 1956.

Wagon Construction in 4mm Scale. M.S.Cross. MRC, 30, Oct/Nov 1963.
Plastikard Wagons. A.Gibson. MRC, 32, Nov1965.
Realistic Wagon Loads. J.Whittaker. MRC, 34, April 1967.
Scratch-building Wagon Bodies. L.B.Eaglen. RM, 21, May 1970.
On the Wagon. (P.O. Wagon Sides). S.J.Taylor. RM, 20, Dec1969.
Wagon Bodies from Polystyrene Sheet. G.Warburton. RM, 22, March 1971.
Securing Long Loads on Wagons. P.Millard, RM, 18, June 1967.
Iron-ore Tippler Wagons. C.J. Peacock. RM, 17, June 1966.
A Simple Jig for Making Hinges for Outside and Inside Framed Vans. M.Hodges. MRN, 38, Dec 1962.
Slatted Ventilators. M.Hodges. MRN, 39, Jan 1963.
How to Build Freight Vehicles in 4mm Scale. N.Dale. MRN, 40, Feb - Aug 1964.
Wagon Loading. J.Hawkins. MRN, 45, Jan 1969.
Pre-Grouping Wagons in 4mm Scale. N.G.Coates. MRN, 45, April/June/Sept/Nov 1969; MRN, 46, Jan/March/June/Aug/Oct/Dec 1970; MRN, 47, June 1971.

Building a Super Detail Tank Wagon (Trix). F. Crudass. RM, 19, Nov 1968.
Making a Good Kit Better. J.Allan. MRN, 37, March 1961. (Airfix Tank Wagon).
Re-building the Triang-Hornby Mineral Wagon. M.Kelly. MRN, 44, Dec 1968.

Hopper Wagons. P.Stevenson. MRC, 31, Feb 1964.
Constructing P.O. Wagons. R.A.Howard. MRC, 35, Feb 1968.
Modelling a HR Passenger Brake Van. E.A.O.Hutchison. RM, 5, Nov 1954.
LMS Covered Combination Truck. LMS Society. RM, 21, March 1970.
Wagons of the Southern Railway. T.Gough. RM, 21, Oct - Dec 1970; RM, 22, Jan/March-May/June 1971.
A Tale of Two (GWR) Monsters. J Whittaker. RM, 18, Dec 1967; RM, 19, Jan 1968.
Another BR. Van. J.Tootell. RM, 19, Feb 1968.
Standard l0ft BR Van. J.Tootell. RM, 18, May 1967.
Cheating Father Time (GWR Siphons). J.Whittaker. MRN, 38, Aug/Sept 1962.
Wagons of the LMS, and associated articles, including LNER. Wagons. R.J.Essery & LMS Society. RM, 14, Jan - June/Aug/Oct - Dec 1963; RM, 15, Jan - Oct 1964; R.M, 17, Aug/Oct 1966; RM, 18, Feb/April/May 1967; RM, 20, May/July/Sept/Nov 1969.