West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

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Allan Goodwillie
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West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Sun Dec 27, 2009 4:43 pm

:D The West of Scotland Group has a number of starters :!: and we are running a short course over the year covering the building of a first locomotive and are looking at first projects and covering a number of basic things in building locomotives.

:idea: I thought it may be interesting for the Society members using the 4um, especially beginners, to see what others do for a first project and what problems they encounter as they go along and what solutions may be considered.

We are considering a mix of converted R-T-R, kits and basic scratch building techniques which will allow everyone to end up with a convincing working locomotive. We will look at the locomotives chosen and consider what is involved as the topic evolves and would like others with experience to chip in as we go along. The way the 4um works is for things to be taken away to specific areas, but I am hoping that this may be kept together in one place as we explore the beginners view.

The first meeting we looked at dealt with drawings and some of the problems encountered with them. Most of the locomotives will use either sprung chassis or compensated, as they are easier and more common ways to construct your first locomotive. Not that other systems are maybe better, but the majority of kits and R-T-R chassis conversions use them and they are more likely to be used by the beginner.

Later we will look at working the bodies up and painting techniques. The emphasis all along will be on doing things the most straight forward way with the minimum of tools and equipment. I know all sorts of goodies are available to the committed modeller and many are quite costly. While I know it is wonderful to have all this to hand, it is not necessary in the building of locomotives.

We will have a look at equipment as we go along, but will try to keep it simple. If some of the members of the Society who have recently come to S4 and who would like to correspond, please do so as I am sure we will be interested in what distant learners will do and what questions they may ask.

As I am taking the group through this process I too will be demonstrating various techniques and if you feel moved to add to what's being covered please do, as this is for some who are absolute beginners then don't be surprised :o if it gets pretty basic at times.

Allan Goodwillie

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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Sun Dec 27, 2009 5:12 pm

Starting with a drawing :D

Assume nothing! We looked at various kits and the drawings supplied with them. One example (for a J37 class) had a drawing on the box top, which looked like a 4mm drawing. The chassis would be one best thrown away frankly and a scratch built example made. On checking the measurements against the kit, however, it was found that the drawing was several millimetres out in the wheelbase. Anyone assuming the drawing to be right and taking measurements from the drawing for a new chassis, would find that the body would not fit and wheels etc. would all end up in the wrong place :!: :evil:

Another example we looked at was a model of a J38 which I built years ago using a Wills J39 kit, bought second hand and placed in a bucket of hot water to separate the glue between the parts. I had a scale drawing which I had checked the main dimensions of and had gone ahead and made the scale chassis. Imagine my chagrin when I discovered that the body was not going to fit :!: :cry: What's more it was 7 mm too short overall! 2mm at the front 1 mm on the smoke box , 2mm lost in the boiler and 2mm in the cab.

A new boiler, front end and an extension to the cab was necessary to produce a scale model, couldn't say I had used much of the kit in the end, although I wrapped the body to gain the millimetres in the central section. Fortunately the J38 had no spashers so there was no problem there.

Photocopying a drawing will end up with something often 1% wrong and scanning on some machines can also lead to problems. So be thorough and check all drawings!

Check the main dimensions for accuracy, both on the drawing and also the model before starting. Length, height, wheelbase, length of chassis, height of frames, in particular. A couple of accurate measuring instruments are worthwhile as well as a good light and magnifier, even if you have young eyes. We will look at some of these as we go along. I am going to build a couple of Barclays and attach a drawing, which has end views as well as side and top views, ideal really. The plan I have checked has all the correct dimensions and I have scanned and checked the print outs for accuracy and will use them to produce two new locomotives.

Allan
Attachments
file.jpeg
The drawing I am using is one made by Andrew Munro from the original Barclay drawing and can be seen in the book The Wemyss Private Railway by Alan Brotchie. Andrew has given his permission to use it and for this I am most greateful.
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Last edited by Allan Goodwillie on Thu Dec 31, 2009 4:41 pm, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Tue Dec 29, 2009 4:59 pm

We will shortly be looking at various kits to allow the beginner to start a conversion of a ready to run locomotive. However I would like to show that choosing a simple prototype and building a chassis for it, is not beyond anyone starting in S4.

There may be advantages in this, which may not be apparent at first. Doing this will hone some of the basic skills you need to make the most of this opportunity. If you do not want to consider any scratch building then that is OK I am sure you will still find much of interest when we come to using chassis kits to get started.

Of the first two locomotives I built in this scale, one required me build a chassis, the second was completely scratch built. I had built kits in 00 before, but had no sense of how to use gauges, jigs etc. so much of it seemed a completely new language. When I finished the first two locomotives I did have a sense of achievement which previous modelling had failed to give me, so I hope if you are thinking of having a go yourself, that the same sense of satisfaction will be yours. :)

The Cutting Drawing


The next stage in construction, if you are going to scratch build a chassis, is to make a cutting drawing of what is required. My own demonstration project will compare two basic methods of construction. here is my cutting diagram for the Barclay. Please note that there is a discrepancy of about 4% in the drawing as shown here. Included on the drawing is the position for the pivot and bar for the compensation.

The diagram has been produced by using two scanned print outs. They have been cut to size and laid out on the black backing card sheet to allow for easy cutting and drilling. All drill holes have been picked out in Red. Where additional length has had to be added to the drawing here and there, where the cab roof has covered the tank top for example, additions have been made in blue.

I have marked the 6mm cut outs required for the sprung horn blocks / compensating horn blocks in yellow and marked in where the compensation beam is going to go. Gibson sprung horn blocks and MJT plain compensation horn blocks use a 6 mm. cut out. I have measured 3mm. from either side of the centre point of the axle. A word here about the planning. If using compensation then axles need to be able to travel upwards as well as down, I normally allow a millimetre of vertical movement in either direction for compensation. Springs do not require this ,but we will come to springs etc. later. The cut outs are the same.

The back axle will be fixed in both cases, and this will also be the driving axle. I have checked the motor and gearbox profile against the drawing and know everything will fit and allow me to detail the cab interiors when the time comes. Motor and gearbox profiles can be found on various producers sites as a download.

Measurement Tip

Careful measurement is essential at all stages, so use a sharp pencil and a clear ruler. It is not a good idea to work from the end of a ruler as it can cause variation in measurement. I measure from the 10mm. mark and subtract 10 mm. from any measurements I may use, I also use a magnifier and good light at all times to aid precision.

Once the pieces have been laid out in the most economical way,stick them down with Prit stick as this will glue without any problems with the glue expanding the paper. What you have will look like a drawing for an etched kit. There is a second drawing which I have not included here to cover the boiler and smoke box front as I think it unlikely that beginners would wish to have a go at rolling a boiler just yet, I am assuming that tubes of various diameters are more likely to be the answer for the beginner, we will come to this later.

Now here is the drawing.
Attachments
1.jpg
The cutting diagram, the main items to be considered at this stage being the main frames. Detail is on one side only as when both are cut out they will eventually be soldered together and cut as one. The drawing shown here is 4% too large so please don't download and use it as it is. it is purely for illustration purposes only
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Wed Dec 30, 2009 10:06 am

Finding Time

Before we get too far into the project I just want to say a little bit about time and organisation. I have been building models in P4/S4 for about 40 years now and always found some time to do it, despite having a teaching job and a family and other interests. I have always been productive and my key to this is how I have used my time effectively.

If you are like me there are times when you feel good and on top of things and nothing will really bother you and you are ready to tackle the difficult tasks - personally my best time is the morning. I have tried to reserve Saturday morning for working on the difficult parts and get up early before the family eventually rise, this I also found suited my wife who has always been an evening person. I have also always put one evening aside to do things as well, sometimes at the workbench but more often sitting in front of the telly with the family, working with a tray on my lap.

So Saturdays for the difficult stuff and a week night for the assembly of kits and the not too difficult. 6-10 hours per week, but regular.

Just in case you think you are being selfish about setting aside this time. It will provide you with some special "me" time which will benefit your family and work as it will refresh you and give you a sense of satisfaction that comes from a re-creative occupation.

A Space to Work

When the children were small I had a small workbench in the living room, with the proviso that it was kept organised. Something like a bureau is fine as it can be closed up within a couple of minutes. A tray and a kitchen table also is fine with some place to hide it away when not in use. My friend Richard Chown made gauge O models during his lunch hour at work all out of a desk drawer. If you are lucky to have a permanent space to work in, then that is ideal. Nowadays I am lucky enough to have a workroom, but most of the work goes on in a space not much bigger than before. My railways are in a converted garage.

So find some place which will work for you.

Divide the Work

Divide the work into segments:

[*]The difficult items for your "Saturdays" which will require some time and may not finish in the one session - complete it in the next Saturday session. These sessions often require thinking time anyway.

[*]The other items can be sorted into things that may require a couple of hours for an evening session and things which could be worked on intermittently with a knife or file for these odd 10 or 20 minutes you may have spare waiting around for other family things to happen.

:D This way you will always have something to work on and it will fit with the time you have spare. Do not have too many tasks on the go at one time however. It is not a good thing to put an item aside either just because you have come to a difficult task, see to that task even if it takes all your "Saturday" time for a couple of weeks, do not be frightened to tackle it, these are the jobs which will teach you most and where you gain most experience. With care and some patience there are no techniques you cannot master :!:

If you are worried about setting aside some "me "time you will find it has benefits both for family and work - remember this is a recreation in the true sense of the word. Also when you are building your railway empire, whatever the size, it is there to give pleasure to yourself and give you something you can share pleasure in with your friends, go your own way and enjoy the journey. My advice is freely given, but you don't have to follow it either, after some time and perhaps more resources you will be able to do far better things I am sure. :D

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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Wed Jan 06, 2010 11:41 pm

Plan of Construction

So we have a cutting plan and now I would suggest it may be a good idea to also have a plan of construction at this stage. All models can be broken down into sub assemblies and individual tasks.

It is not a case of having to do things in the order written down. I have already suggested that certain more difficult tasks, or more time consuming, may require specific time set aside. These key tasks are highlighted in green on the list. Other items could be done in these odd half hours here and there, but there are one or two tasks that are best done in a set order and I will point this out when the time comes. So here is the plan which is to design and construct a chassis, which can be dis-assembled for painting and repair and which uses jigs for accurate assembly of components.


1. Separate the frames and the spacers from the other parts and make up compensator
2. Fold chassis sides together keeping them folded along the top edge
3. Drill all holes and clean up all edges except the folded one
4. Use the 1.5mm axle holes to set up the coupling jig
5. Make up the coupling rods on the jigThis must be done before 6 onwards ;)
6. Separate frame sides. Cut rectangular cut outs for the horn blocks, check then allocate horn blocks
7. Mark out, drill, cut and fold spacers
8. Make up frames using jigs
9. Match horn block components and assemble horn blocks as per instructions
Using assembly and spacing jig

10. Fit horn block assemblies and compensator using jigs
11. Make up motor and gearbox unit, check how it will fit against drawing
12. Test unit with power, if OK run in motor/gearbox on bench
13. Fit crank pins to wheels and check for correct fitting using jig
14. Fit one wheel to each axle and check they are square. Do not fit other wheels yet! :!:
15. Using a slow motor and gearbox true wheels in turn
16. Allocate horn blocks to each axle, and motor /gearbox as appropriate
17. Partially fit other wheels and quarter using jig17 must come before 18 using this method
18. Press fit other wheels on to the axles and check for being square
19. Re-fit axles in the correct order and use temporary retaining wires
20. Check all moving parts for freedom, do rolling check, keeping gears disengaged

21. Trial fit of coupling rods, open up holes if necessary, treat as two 0-4-0’s

22. Fit crank pin nuts and tighten. Check for binding. (Chassis must be free before 23)
23. After tweaking to get all running as an o-6-o tighten gearwheel grub screw and try motor under power and Test run
24. Fit more permanent retaining nuts on crank pins make up pick ups, fix motor, fit and test
25. Fit other details including brakes, sand boxes, etc.
26. Check running on bench then test run and watch for shorts, clear same
27. Drop wheel sets and pick ups
28. Paint chassis
29. Refit wheels etc. and test run with body when assembled.

Next we will look at the jigs and tools needed to do the work, the making of jigs for the beginner will give practice in metal working technique and will equip him with a workable system, which will allow him to build consistently well right from the start. We shall also cover materials at this stage.

Allan
Last edited by Allan Goodwillie on Sat Jan 23, 2010 10:34 am, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Thu Jan 07, 2010 10:27 pm

Jigs and gauges

Why use Jigs? :?

It is recommended that you consider making up one or two simple jigs, which, although it will take you a little time to construct them, it will speed up construction of the locomotives and, more importantly, will produce good and consistent results from your first locomotive onwards. It will also save you from lots of lost hours while you try to figure out which combination of bodges has led you to a non-working chassis. :evil:

You will be following real methods of railway construction, as the real thing was jig constructed. You will also come, I hope, to enjoy the construction of jigs for their own sake and take pleasure in their use.

I have ulterior motives in this, in that I also want to get your measuring skills and metal working skills up to scratch before constructing your first chassis. In making the gauges you will have to measure and mark out accurately, as well as, cut, file, drill and fettle (refine to the point of working precision) your jigs.

All the jigs illustrated below could be produced over a couple of evenings, but will save you endless hours of frustrating work and allow you to enjoy more your time constructing as you will gain confidence in the method of construction I am going to suggest, which took me some time to evolve.

Books on the subject don’t always tell you the little tips that help you get things right or often gloss over particular problems, which can easily bring the beginner to a halt. I am quite happy to give away my secrets and some of you will go on to eclipse myself easily I am sure – remember that when someone comes to you for help some time in the future. :)

Some jigs may look pretty basic, but I can assure you they work. I do not have any really fancy equipment, for the first twenty years of working in the gauge I had no lathe or mini drill, and simply worked away with some basic hand tools. Tools we will come to after looking at the jigs and gauges we will need. I will also show how to make the jigs once we have the tools. More detail as to how, and why, they are used will be gone into later.

The jigs and gauges are as follows.

1. Rim press washers and plastic wheel centre support to be used with press tool or vice
2. Frame Gauge
3. Back-to-Back gauge
4. Wheel/axle square gauge
5. Coupling rod jig
6. Engine frame jig
7. Caliper gauge
8. Wheel and crank pin jig
9. Quartering jig

Next we will need some tools , this we will cover next.

Allan
Attachments
jigsgauges.JPG
Although it will take some time to make the jigs there is nothing here which you cannot make and they will save you hours. Cost of jigs is minimal, although the necessary machined gauges will cost you a little, but money well spent. This is modelling on a budget until you feel you want to branch out.
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Allan Goodwillie
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Fri Jan 08, 2010 11:37 pm

Tool List

Here is the tool list you will probably need, some items are not completely necessary, but very useful. (Marked Green) I am assuming no special expensive tools like a lathe or a micro drill. Just basic metal working tools. The most important is the vice, if you don't have one yet, go for a machined one, which can also be reversed around. It is going to be your best friend :) so don't mistreat it. This is true of all your tools, if looked after, they will give good service over many years. The needle files - buy cheap pay dear - go and get some descent ones and buy a caliper gauge, you get very nice digital ones out of places like Liddle at a very reasonable price, once you have one it will surprise you how often you will use it. The scissors - you will use them for cutting thin metal so Pound Shop here. :idea:

Here is the list-

1. Soldering iron (25W), solder, flux, stand
2. Steel ruler (metric)
3. Caliper Gauge and square
4. Centre Punch and scriber
5. Vice and V cutting block G clamp
6. Piercing saw (adjustable) and blades
7. Junior hacksaw and blades
8. Scissors and Stanley knife and cutting board
9. Lamp and magnifier
10. Hand drill and Archimedean drill
11. 2.00mm. drill, 1.50mm.drill, small drill set
12. Small hammer
13. Warding file and handle
14. Needle files, glass paper
15. Broaches and reamer and burnishing tool
16. Screwdrivers
17. Tinman’s shears, pliers, small

Next - the materials list for the jigs and the chassis and making the jigs.

Terry Bendall
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Terry Bendall » Tue Jan 12, 2010 8:12 am

I find this series facinating and very useful. Something that surprises me is that no one else has commented in a similar way. I don't claim to be a beginner as far as P4 modelling is concerned but I am when it comes to steam locomotive construction so I expect to learn a lot. I shall be very interested to see how the frame jig is made.

On the list of tools Allan you mention a caliper gauge which I call a vernier caliper (see Scalefour News 156 page 10) I guess from what you say this is what you mean. There must be a different term in Scotland! :D

I notice you mention glass paper. Now I would use glass paper on wood. (Never sand paper by the way since these days what some people call sandpaper is in fact powdered glass hence glass paper.) Did you really mean glass paper or did you mean either emery cloth which is usually used on metal, or silicon carbide paper, sometines called wet and dry paper, which can be used on metal but is often used on plastics and for rubbing down paint?

Terry Bendall

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Russ Elliott
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Russ Elliott » Tue Jan 12, 2010 1:49 pm

I'm also looking forward to this thread, Terry. A little patience is perhaps required though before Allan gets into the meat of describing some of his (rather interesting) jigs!

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Allan Goodwillie
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Tue Jan 12, 2010 8:32 pm

Hi Terry and Russ, :)

sorry I have been away today and am only getting back to you now. I started to write up the thread at about the time I was starting the two sample chassis I am building. The chassis were started on the 3rd Jan and could see completion tomorrow (13th). The chassis are working, and simply need brake gear to complete. The reason that it has taken so long to build them is that I am taking notes and photographs at all stages as I hope this will help the group in their building and anyone else who would like to dive in and have a go at their first steam locomotive. I have friends who after 20 years of armchair modelling still haven't made the move! :o

I understand why many beginners may be reluctant to reply on the 4um, they probably are not wanting to show ignorance in front of what they may consider to an unseen, but experienced group of modellers, but the way the 4um works I think is very positive, like yourself there is always something new to pick up and even the experienced modellers may still be interested, as I hope what I am about to do with this will be quite thought provoking.

I learned when a young man that there is no shame in admitting that you may not know something. Asking someone who knows, often has more than one effect, it should be a good chance to learn something new, which you can add to your own experience, but it is also a chance for the person with the experience to have the pleasure of passing on his knowledge in the hope it may be used to produce better models and modellers. I was sorry to here Peter Denny had died recently as I was inspired by his work early on in EM gauge and his gentle approach to modelling and modellers alike. Very admirable and sorely missed.

I do hope they will contribute as we go along, but remember this is for the beginner - more complex things could go on elsewhere.The discussion on split axles, for example, I find it interesting as I have built a number of locomotives that way in the past and I have already been asked to do a blow by blow construction of a CSB suspension with Exactoscale horn blocks for split axles, I probably will, but this I would not recommend for a beginner. The combination of the two would be a first for me, but I am sure interesting to tackle. My construction jigs would still work on such a locomotive.

What I have found is that quite a number have been emailing me behind the scenes, often with interesting viewpoints and questions despite just starting on the web piece. I am happy to take emails behind the scenes, but this kind of misses the point of the 4um.

Of course what I do is what I do, there is no forcing for anyone to follow. I have built some fiercely complex models over the years just trying things out, but this will be simple and easy to follow with I hope clear explanations of how my system works.

By the way Terry, you are right of course, the proper and full name is a vernier caliper gauge, but they are often described simply as caliper gauges in catalogues, it is true that the one illustrated has a vernier scale. My father who was a trained engineer always referred to them as his calipers. This may be purely a Scottish reference, I am not sure, it may also be an age thing. Being of a more ancient disposition these days I still refer to a soldering iron as a soldering bolt - which is what I was brought up on as a youngster when you had to heat the "bolt" on a flame - I do get into trouble with my friend Simon who loves to correct me every time, so I have now taken on the further habit of always referring to it as a bolt, just so that he can have the pleasure of correcting me every time.
The glass paper reference is fair as most modellers use fine glass paper for wood only, but it also works very nicely on nickel silver almost polishing it, with softer metals it tends to clog more readily and you would be best using 401Q imperial wetordry Paper AWt. 1500 grade, which can be commonly bought for fine finishing. If you need something rougher to take down edges etc. I tend to use an Aluminium oxide paper P100, again commonly available from B&Q

Seriously I would appreciate you getting back to me if there are things you think could be improved upon, particularly explanations of problems or solving them. I am intending writing everything up over the next couple of weeks, and ask my wife to proof read it prior to it going on the 4um. I am going to have to retro edit a few things, but that's OK.

I am going down with Richard Darby and Blackston Junc.to Leamington Spa at the weekend providing the weather allows us. I have spent a couple of days over the last week digging neighbours out of the snow! I have the locos and stock to maintain and frost this evening as Richard is coming over in half an hour.

Allan

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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby grovenor-2685 » Tue Jan 12, 2010 10:30 pm

What I have found is that quite a number have been emailing me behind the scenes, often with interesting viewpoints and questions despite just starting on the web piece. I am happy to take emails behind the scenes, but this kind of misses the point of the 4um.

Ok people, don't be shy, think of Allan and the group. Allan is doing this out of the goodness of his heart so we all can learn, so if you have a question please pluck up the courage to share it with us all and we will all learn from the answer. Also, equally important Allan only has to answer it once. If 6 of you all send private emails with a question Allan has to send 6 answers, and only 6 people get to read the answer, ask on here, Allan only needs to answer once and a couple of hundred get the benefit.
Best regards
Keith
Also expecting to benefit. :)

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David Thorpe
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby David Thorpe » Wed Jan 13, 2010 12:08 am

I'm enjoying this thread very much indeed and (I hope Alan doesn't mind) am printing it out so that i can read it while not at the computer. I wish i could manage two decent running chassis in 10 days - it's taken me all evening struggling with some Gibson sprung hornblocks (I know, I know, but they're in the kit and I feel I have to use them). I saw the caliper gauges in Lidl but didn't buy one (when am I ever going to need one of these?!) but hopefully they'll come round again. Meanwhile - looking forward to the next instalment!

David.

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Allan Goodwillie
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Wed Jan 13, 2010 1:12 am

Thanks Keith,

I agree, what I will do with the various discussions going on behind the scenes will be to include certain points as we go along and include some of the loco images as they are built as people send them to me.

The quickest I have had to scratch build an engine was six days, one day of which was used doing other things, that was for the original 0-6-0st for Burntisland. Once we are back from the exhibition I will go ahead and build the bodies for the two locos, which I hope will take about 8-10 days since I will be taking photographs as I go along.

I will try to get the information out on constructing the jigs before I go away, even if I don't manage to get all the under gear on to the locos, so that if people want to, they can go ahead and make the jigs up ready to tackle their own locomotive. The jigs can be made universal to do for more than S4 and if it turns out that they prove to be of real interest, then it may be possible to produce a production run, but the whole idea is that with care there is nothing that the beginner couldn't make for themselves. So there will be no further answers to questions before the weekend just so that I can get some of this material up on to the web and allow people to start.

The caliper is one tool that I would regard as essential and you will find it to be so once purchased, but you can get by with a good clear steel rule if necessary. The caliper will be particularly good for various settings and it will be used as an informal jig for checking squareness, levels, setting consistently other jigs, and all manner of things as you will see.

If anyone wants to hold off a week or two before starting and until they can see how the jigs etc.are going to be used, that's OK too. :)

Allan

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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Terry Bendall » Wed Jan 13, 2010 7:55 am

Thanks Allan for the clarification. I have a little saying "Learn something new everyday" and it is surprising how often it happens. I have certainly never heard the term "soldering bolt" but I used to use the old heat up irons a lot, but not for modelling.

I agree about the use of vernier calipers. I use mine a lot, even for something as simple as building construction where it can be used to measure the size of a piece of styrene or card exactly.

Terry Bendall

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Allan Goodwillie
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Wed Jan 20, 2010 11:02 pm

Jigs and gauges

Carefully made jigs I believe are very worthwhile and essential to my way of building locomotives. There is nothing difficult in the making of them.

It is recommended that you consider making up one or two simple jigs, which, although it will take you a little time to construct them, will speed up construction of the locomotives and, more importantly, will produce good and consistent results from your first locomotive onwards. It will also save you from lots of lost hours while you try to figure out which combination of bodges has led you to a non-working chassis. You will be following real methods of railway construction, as real locomotive frames were jig constructed. You will also come, I hope, to enjoy the construction of jigs for their own sake and take pleasure in their use.

Skills Level

I have ulterior motives in this, in that I also want to get your measuring skills and metal working skills up to scratch before constructing your first chassis. In making the gauges you will have to measure and mark out accurately, as well as, cut, file, drill and fettle (refine to the point of working precision) your jigs.

All the jigs illustrated below could be produced over a couple of evenings, but will save you endless hours of frustrating work and allow you to enjoy your time constructing as you will gain confidence in the method of construction I am going to suggest, which took me some time to evolve.

Books on the subject don’t always tell you the little tips that help you get things right or often gloss over particular problems, which can easily bring the beginner to a halt. I am quite happy to give away my secrets and some of you will go on to eclipse myself easily I am sure – remember that yourself when someone comes to you for help some time in the future.

Some jigs may look pretty basic, but I can assure you they work. I do not have any really fancy equipment, for the first twenty years of working in the gauge I had no lathe or mini drill, and simply worked away with the same basic hand tools.

Allan
Attachments
jigsgauges.JPG
Gauges and jigs are as follows : 1 Wheel rim press jig, 2 Frame gauges, 3 B- to -B gauge, 4 Wheel/axle square gauge, 5 Coupling rod gauge, 6 Engine frame gauge, 7 Vernier Caliper Gauge, 8 Wheel and crank pin jig, 9 Qiuartering jig 10 Coupling rod jig, (not illustrated - similar to Perseverance jigs)
jigsgauges.JPG (46.09 KiB) Viewed 9049 times

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Allan Goodwillie
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Wed Jan 20, 2010 11:11 pm

Jig and Gauge List

1. Rim press jig (metal washers and Plasticard wheel centre support to be used with press tool or vice
2. Frame Gauges (one per axle, made by Comet you will need enough for three axles)
3. Back-to-Back gauge (Scalefour Society L-type)
4. Wheel/axle square gauge (This one home made from steel bar – useful but not absolutely necessary)
5. Coupling rod jig
6. Engine frame jig
7. Vernier Caliper gauge
8. Wheel and crank pin jig
9. Quartering jig
10.Coupling rod jig (London Road Models)

Materials required for the construction of the jigs are as follows:
From B&Q:
1mtr. aluminium angle 10mm.x10mm.
1mtr. aluminium angle 30mm. x 30mm.
6mm. MDF or plywood 55mm.x 160 mm.
1metre length of zinced steel threaded rod (M4)
1metre length Raw Aluminium tubing 6 x 1- 1m (6 mm outside diameter,) 1mm wall thickness- fits around 4mm steel rod)
M4 washers 20 pack
M4 shake proof washers 20 pack
M4 nuts 20 pack
3Penny washers M10 (hole diameter) x 32mm O/D
1Plasticard disc 32mm O/D
3 Plasticard discs 10mm O/D

From Ilene’s Emporium or Squires
plain disc of 40 thou Plasticard
3 Off-cuts of 40 thou Plasticard 8mm in diameter
0010thou brass sheet 100mm x 50mm
18 x 12BA countersunk brass screws, washers and nuts
U-channel 4mm. x 4.5 mm. To be a sliding fit in square brass tubing 4.5mm. (specify sliding fit, when ordering)
2 x 180mm. Lengths of brass strip 1mm thickness x 5mm. width
Super glue and plastic solvent.


You will also need:

frame gauges (S4) (Comet)
B-to B gauge L type (Scalefour Society)
coupling rod/horn block gauges (S4) (Perseverance type)(London Road Models)
Vernier Gauge (Lidl or Squires)
Spare top hat bushes for 1/8th inch dia. Axel
Spare crank pin bushes (Order a crank pin set of a larger number, than that needed for your loco when getting your wheels from Alan Gibson, spares are always useful as you are likely to loose at least one at a critical time!)

Allan

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Allan Goodwillie
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Wed Jan 20, 2010 11:16 pm

Constructing the jigs

Rim Press Jig

The purpose of this jig is to allow for assembly of the wheel sets in such a way that the wheels go on straight and square to gain the correct relationship of rim to axel and be able to use a simple vice to fit them

The rim press jig is simply 3 big 40thou thick (approx) penny washers, which have a M10 (10mm) hole diameter to clear wheel bosses and which are 32mm outside diameter to support the wheel rims, with a backing piece of Plasticard also 32mm diameter and 40 thou thickness. You will also need up to 3 pieces of Plasticard the same thickness of the washers and 10mm diameter.

One part you will need to remake for various wheels (if they have a different depth of boss) will be the central disc. However make the first one up for the wheels you are intending to use on your first loco.

To make your first central disc –

Ensure the washers are flat by gently rubbing them on some fine wet and dry paper and check they are even using your Vernier gauge. The slight roughening will also allow the super glue gel to get an even better grip. Superglue the three washers together and press them in the vice until they are set, then using your Vernier gauge ensure they are of even thickness when put together.

Ensure nothing sticks out beyond the flange on the back of the wheel dress the flange gently (ignore the central boss in the middle of the wheel on Gibson wheels as these act as a limiter and should not be removed.)

Place the wheel, with the boss facing upwards on a flat surface. Place the washers on top of the wheel so that the boss fits within the central hole and the wheel supports the washers on its rim.
Cut your 10mm diameter circles of Plasticard and using solvent cement them together and allow to dry. When dry take the Plasticard and cut a slot from the rim towards the centre of the thick disc. The slot has to be wide enough to take the thickness of the crank pin and a gnat”s whisker more. Now drop the Plasticard disc into the hole in the washers and ensure it is snug against the wheel boss. At this point the Plasticard should be proud of the top washer. Now carefully file the Plasticard down until it is flush and level with the top of the washer, taking care not to damage the washer surface.

Now cut a 32 mm diameter disc of 40thou Plasticard the same size as the washers and ensure it is flat and of even thickness. I would recommend chamfering the edges of the Plasticard to ensure there is nothing to upset the levels.

Note This 32mm. size is suitable for most locomotives up to the larger types of Pacific. Locomotives with larger centre bosses (GWR, Singles, etc.) may require a larger centre hole to accommodate.

Allan
Attachments
DSC01350.JPG
This shows the jig once assembled. In this particular example I have not used a piece of plasticard on the final layer, but have used a larger washer with a smaller hole . The central blank can be seen sitting alongside.
DSC01350.JPG (27.99 KiB) Viewed 8914 times
rimpressjig.jpg
Rim press jig
rimpressjig.jpg (12.86 KiB) Viewed 9049 times
Last edited by Allan Goodwillie on Sat Jan 23, 2010 4:35 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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Allan Goodwillie
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Wed Jan 20, 2010 11:21 pm

Chassis Construction Jig

The purpose of this jig is to ensure a chassis 100% true and to hold the various components accurately in place and together during assembly. It leaves the hands free to solder and to adjust components without the problems of the main assembly moving around. In conjunction with a swivelling headed vice it is a very worthwhile and low cost jig to make.

Please Note - For the following, all sizes are on the diagram below.

The jig has a number of components, which are simply made and allow for the jig to be quite adaptable. The jig I will be using is for 4 and 6 wheel chassis, but the design can be easily adapted for 8 and 10 wheel locomotives and for different frame spacings I use 14.5-15mm spacings for S4, but you can have some flexibility here. (See Diagram).

First cut your base from MDF. I have used two pieces of thin MDF cut using a knife and ruler and glued together (5mm. Total thickness). The material should be both flat and robust.(A single piece of 5/6mm MDF cut using a saw will equally do - if you wish something, even more posh, then use flat aluminium sheet or strip, again make sure it is thick enough that it will not distort.)

Cut to length two strips of brass rod to act as guides and then cut your aluminium jig sides to the correct profile. Please note that the aluminium jig sides are in separate pieces to allow for different wheelbases.

Mark the hole positions in the metal parts and centre punch the holes before drilling with a small drill suitable for the size of countersink brass nuts and bolts you have purchased.

Now mark the positions of the various components on to the base and also mark the positions of the holes. Also note some holes are elongated to allow for different settings of the jig. Elongate these holes, by drilling a hole alongside the holes already drilled and create slots using a needle file. Remember the ones in the aluminium jig sides.

From the underside use a larger drill to countersink the holes to allow the bolts to become flush with the surface (This will allow the bracket on the underneath to be flush with the under surface.) Please note the position of this bracket relative to the adjustable bolts as it will be necessary from engine to engine to adjust the same.

Now assemble the parts as seen in the diagram and you should then have an adjustable chassis jig.

Allan
Attachments
DSC01345.JPG
This shows the layout of the top of the jig as can be seen the aluminium pieces of angle can be moved to give alternative spacings to allow for different wheel bases. What cannot be seen here are the slotted holes in the base to allow for the adjustment for different frame widths - we will look at setting these later in the construction photographs
DSC01345.JPG (35.26 KiB) Viewed 8914 times
DSC01344.JPG
This image shows the angle material fitted to the back of the jig
DSC01344.JPG (40.68 KiB) Viewed 8914 times
Chassisjigdesign.jpg
Chassisjigdesign.jpg (133.47 KiB) Viewed 9046 times
Last edited by Allan Goodwillie on Sat Jan 23, 2010 4:38 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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Allan Goodwillie
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Fri Jan 22, 2010 11:17 am

Coupling rod jig

The purpose of the coupling rod jig is to be able to make accurate coupling rods to the correct spacing and for both coupling rods to be exact mirror images of one another. The Perseverance type jig (not illustrated) is also required for the setting of the horn blocks within the chassis.

There are two coupling rod jigs I use, the first being a set of Perseverance jigs from a number of years ago ( London Road Models produce something similar, but with pointed ends –we will have a look at them later). The second is a simple jig made from a couple of pieces of 10mm aluminium angle bolted together using spacers. The spacers are set to hold either the Perseverance jigs (but not the London Road version) or a number of bolts with the ends turned down to the coupling hole size, similar to the Perseverance Jigs.

The spacers are made from aluminium tube carefully cut at right angles and finished off, with a section of threaded rod suitable for M4 nuts and lock washers.

These bolts were produced by Studiolith 40 years ago and I have used them ever since. A set of similar 30mm bolts can be produced by putting them in a drill and using a flat file, turn the ends down to the correct diameter 1.5mm. Take care to make them all the same. (8BA threaded steel rod is available from Ilene's Emporium) You will need as many of these as axles. You will also need nuts and washers to go with the bolts. Brass bolts, nuts and washers will do if just required for use as a coupling jig (provided they are long enough) although I would chemically blacken them before use to cut down on the effect of flux splashing everywhere.

(This jig I can also use as a chassis jig along with the original parts from Studiolith - this I may cover elsewhere, since the other parts are no longer available.)

Follow the sizes on the drawing, it is a case of measuring cutting and assembling.
Attachments
DSC05063.JPG
This shows the possibilities of the jig as a chassis construction jig although we are not going to use it for this in our demonstration. I have built many locomotives using this jig alone. It shows a North British Atlantic under construction, still pretty basic at this stage.
DSC05063.JPG (34.25 KiB) Viewed 8911 times
DSC05062.JPG
Here the jig is in action with the coupling rods made to measure on the back of the jig
DSC05062.JPG (20.83 KiB) Viewed 8911 times
Couplingrodjig.jpg
Couplingrodjig.jpg (21.08 KiB) Viewed 8990 times
Last edited by Allan Goodwillie on Sat Jan 23, 2010 5:09 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Fri Jan 22, 2010 12:30 pm

The Crank pin throw jig

This jig is to allow you to check that the throw of all the crank pins is the same and that the crank pins are held vertical in their wheels and parallel to the axle.

The gauge uses the brass sections, which are now available. Prepare all the pieces illustrated first before assembly. Drill all holes, (making sure each is central) and fit bearings before assembling the other parts. Cut the axle material to length and take any sharpness off the edges.

When drilling the holes try to make them as close to the end of the square sections as possible. Before the upper top hat bush and crank pin bush are soldered in place make sure there is no material sticking up from the surface, as you are using the machined surfaces of the tube and the bushes to keep everything level. Although you will have drilled the lower hole in the tube at the same time as the upper (try to keep them vertical!) do not fit the lower top hat bush yet.
If the edges of the bush, when fitted, stick beyond the end of the brass section, then file it flush with the edge. Do the same with the crank pin bush. The holes should be as close together as possible to allow for possible minimal crank throw.

The U section of brass can now be soldered into the end of the square tube at A making sure all is square. To do this, I would suggest fitting the other end square section, (don’t solder it yet) and place the complete assembly against a block to hold it straight and level while soldering, as this will keep everything square.

Once the U tube has been successfully soldered in place, and is nice and square, place a length of axle material into the upper top hat bush and place the lower bush over the axle. Make sure when you solder the lower bush in place, that the axle is at right angles in each plane (See diagram) Also be careful not to use excessive heat as you do not want to upset the previous solder joint made. A pair of pliers can be used as a heat sink at the joint between the U and Square section.

Make any adjustments and solder the axle in place, using the same technique as above. Check all is well with the joints you have made and check again for everything being square. If satisfied all is well -

Clean up and take off the end piece, which you have been using to ensure straightness.

Fit sliding section holding the crank pin bush in place and make sure it slides properly up to the other square section holding the axle. Now fit and solder the square end piece in place and fit and solder spring and spring plate in place, ensuring spring is under compression. This is just insurance to stop the crank pin gauge slipping out of gauge during operation. Clean up.

Allan :)
Attachments
DSC01358.JPG
This view shows the jig in operation with a wheel that has dropped into position showing that it is correctly set - details as to setting and operation of the jig to come during the construction stage
DSC01358.JPG (23.74 KiB) Viewed 8913 times
DSC01355.JPG
This view shows the gauge set to the minimum crank throw
DSC01355.JPG (28.14 KiB) Viewed 8913 times
DSC01354.JPG
This view shows the slider set to the maximum crank throw
DSC01354.JPG (26.65 KiB) Viewed 8913 times
DSC01351.JPG
This shows the spring clip in position
DSC01351.JPG (28.54 KiB) Viewed 8913 times
Crankpinjig.jpg
Crankpinjig.jpg (31.02 KiB) Viewed 8928 times
Last edited by Allan Goodwillie on Sat Jan 23, 2010 4:46 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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Allan Goodwillie
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Fri Jan 22, 2010 12:47 pm

The Quartering Jig

This is a simple jig to allow you to quarter your wheels, as well as, allow you to set the Back - to - Back (using an L type B - to - B gauge)

This gauge can be made from brass or N/S sheet or even Plasticard. Make up a Plasticard pattern to use as a jig so that all parts are marked out accurately.

Cut and drill all parts cleanly and accurately using the jig and assemble working from the drawing.
Take off any rough edges (or added thickness if using Plasticard) by using fine wet and dry.

This is the last of the jigs you will have to make. :? Hoorraayyyy!! :D
Allan
Attachments
DSC01348.JPG
Here is a look at the assembled jig made from brass sheet
DSC01348.JPG (37.5 KiB) Viewed 8914 times
DSC01347.JPG
This shows the shape of the pieces with a partly assembled gauge and shows how it is put together with a selection of washers of different thickness
DSC01347.JPG (42.54 KiB) Viewed 8914 times
quarteringjig.jpg
quarteringjig.jpg (27.45 KiB) Viewed 8987 times
Last edited by Allan Goodwillie on Sat Jan 23, 2010 4:52 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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Russ Elliott
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Russ Elliott » Fri Jan 22, 2010 4:11 pm

Allan, for the Coupling rod jig, am I right in understanding that the 'rod stalks' are held by this method?

coupling-rod-jig-detail.png
coupling-rod-jig-detail.png (2.92 KiB) Viewed 8972 times

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Allan Goodwillie
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Fri Jan 22, 2010 5:01 pm

Hi Russ, :D

as you will see from the photographs I have posted below, when first being used the bolts have the turned down part on the underside of the jig. It is only the end of the bolt that is turned down. You will note from the other side that the other end sticking out is threaded, there is no bolt head. The bolt head can be cut off and then the end turned down. There is a sample on the mat on the left hand side.

Also on the mat in the lower photograph, are the various bits and pieces from the original P4 system. If the jig is only to be used for setting the Perseverance jigs then they will replace the bolts. I prefer the nuts and bolts as they can be tightened slightly so that they are a tight sliding fit, to allow for easier adjustment.

If you want more information on the other bits and pieces I would be more than happy to detail this, but if making them yourself you will need a lathe and I feel this is outside the scope of the beginner as I am trying to get people into making chassis with the minimum of expensive equipment. I will show later however, how to use the jig both as a coupling rod jig , but also an alternative inexpensive chassis jig for those who would want to develop it as such.
Allan :)
Attachments
DSC01340.JPG
DSC01340.JPG (17.31 KiB) Viewed 8966 times
DSC01339.jpg
DSC01339.jpg (14.68 KiB) Viewed 8966 times
DSC01338.jpg
DSC01338.jpg (17.32 KiB) Viewed 8966 times

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Russ Elliott
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Russ Elliott » Fri Jan 22, 2010 5:56 pm

I'm getting confused here! (So I will continue on with my stupid questions.)

Allan Goodwillie wrote:...when first being used...

Ahhhh, ooooh, err, right then, so when first being used, each stickyup thing in the jig looks like this?:

coupling-rod-jig-detail2.png
coupling-rod-jig-detail2.png (3.81 KiB) Viewed 8961 times

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Allan Goodwillie
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Re: West of Scotland Group's "Starters" Build a loco project

Postby Allan Goodwillie » Fri Jan 22, 2010 6:01 pm

Yep! You have it right and I am impressed by how quickly you put the drawing together. I am sitting down sorting out the construction photographs just now and hope to post them up over the weekend. It can go either way for making the couplings, but you fit them this way if you are going to make it a jig for construction. Thank you for the drawing Russ. :)

Allan


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